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Diabetes Terms Glossary

Diabetes Terms Glossary

Acesulfame-k is an artificial sweetener that can be used in place of sugar. Because it contains neither carbohydrates nor sugar, it has no effect on blood sugar levels. In processed low-calorie foods, this sweetener is frequently combined with other artificial sweeteners. It’s also sold under the names Sunette, Sweet One, and Swiss Sweet as a tabletop sweetener.

Acetone is a molecule that occurs in the blood when the body breaks down fat for energy instead of sugar; acetone formation usually indicates that the cells are starving. Ketosis is the term for the body’s creation of acetone. It happens when there is an absolute or relative lack of insulin, preventing glucose from entering cells for energy. The body then attempts to obtain energy from other sources, such as muscle proteins and fat from fat cells. Acetone is excreted in the urine after passing through the body.

Acidosis is an excess of acid in the body caused by the formation of ketones such as acetone when cells are starved; the most prevalent type of acidosis in diabetics is “ketoacidosis.”

Acute. A sudden and usually severe onset that lasts only a short time.

Adrenal glands. Two endocrine glands sit on top of the kidneys and produce and release stress hormones such as epinephrine (adrenaline), which stimulates carbohydrate metabolism; norepinephrine, which raises heart rate and blood pressure; and corticosteroid hormones, which regulate how the body uses fat, protein, carbohydrates, and minerals, as well as helping to reduce inflammation. They can also create DHEA and progesterone, as well as sex hormones like testosterone.

Adult-onset diabetes. A name for type 2 diabetes that is no longer used because this kind of diabetes is now regularly observed in youngsters; “non-insulin-dependent diabetes” is also a misnomer when describing type 2 diabetes because patients with this type of diabetes may require insulin at some point.

Advantame. A sugar substitute certified by the MHRA that can be used as a tabletop sweetener as well as a cooking ingredient. Baked products, soft drinks and other non-alcoholic beverages, chewing gum, sweets, frostings, frozen desserts, gelatins and puddings, jams and jellies, processed fruits and fruit juices, toppings and syrups are all examples of Advantame’s uses.

Adverse effect. A harmful effect that has an adverse outcome.

Aerobic exercise is any repetitive physical activity that engages large muscle groups and causes the heart and lungs to work harder than at rest. It is also known as aerobic exercise and has been shown to reduce blood sugar levels.

Albuminuria occurs when the kidneys are injured and begin to leak protein into the urine. Albumin is a tiny, abundant protein in the blood that passes through the kidney filter more easily than other proteins, allowing it to enter the urine. Albuminuria affects between 30 percent to 45 percent of persons with type 1 diabetes who have had it for at least 10 years. The kidneys of patients newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes may already show evidence of protein spilling, known as “microalbuminuria.” This could be the outcome of diabetes or other conditions associated with diabetes, such as high blood pressure. End-stage renal disease is more likely when there is a protein in the urine. It also indicates that the person is at an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease.

Alpha cell. A type of cell found in the islets of the Langerhans area of the pancreas that produces and releases the hormone “glucagon.” Glucagon works in direct opposition to insulin, increasing the quantity of glucose in the bloodstream by releasing sugar held in the liver.

Antibodies are proteins produced by the body to defend itself against foreign things such as bacteria and viruses.

Anomaly. A variation from the norm or average; birth problems.

Artery. A blood channel that transports blood from the heart to various areas of the body; arteries are thicker and more elastic than veins. The process of “atherosclerosis” occurs when plaque forms within the walls of arteries. These plaques can become unstable and break, resulting in diabetes-related problems like heart attacks and strokes.

An antidiabetic agent is a drug that helps diabetics control their blood sugar levels (see insulin, oral diabetes medication).

Antigens. Compounds that elicit an immune response in the body, detecting substances or markers on cells; the body makes antibodies to combat antigens or hazardous substances and attempts to destroy them.

Artery. A blood channel that transports blood from the heart to various areas of the body; arteries are thicker and more elastic than veins. The process of “atherosclerosis” occurs when plaque forms within the walls of arteries. These plaques can become unstable and break, resulting in diabetes-related problems like heart attacks and strokes.

Artificial pancreas. A glucose sensor is joined to an insulin delivery device, and the two are linked by a “closed-loop system.” In other words, it’s a system that can not only assess a person’s blood glucose level but also use that information to release the correct amount of insulin for the sugar level it just measured. Because the artificial pancreas can control how much insulin is released, low glucose will prompt the device to reduce insulin delivery. Trials of an artificial pancreas are presently underway, with the goal of making this technology commercially available within five years. Studies are also being carried out to produce an implantable version of this device.

Asymptomatic means there are no symptoms or obvious signs of sickness.

Atherosclerosis is an artery disease produced by cholesterol deposits in the artery walls. These plaques can pile up and constrict the arteries, or they can become unstable and break off, causing blood clots that cause heart attacks and strokes. During times of intense activity, the arteries supplying blood to the heart might become significantly constricted, reducing the supply of oxygen-rich blood to the heart.

Artificial sweeteners, often known as non-nutritive sweeteners, are sugar substitutes or low-calorie or non-caloric sweeteners. They have fewer calories than table sugar, corn syrup, or fruit juice concentrates and give a pleasant flavour. Aspartame (NutraSweet and Equal), sucralose (Splenda), acesulfame potassium, neotame, and saccharin (Sweet’N Low) are all examples of artificial sweeteners.

Aspartame is a low-calorie artificial sweetener that is used in place of sugar. It is offered under the brand names “Equal” and “NutraSweet.”

Asymptomatic means there are no symptoms or obvious signs of sickness.

Atherosclerosis is an artery disease produced by cholesterol deposits in the artery walls. These plaques can pile up and constrict the arteries, or they can become unstable and break off, causing blood clots that cause heart attacks and strokes. During times of intense activity, the arteries supplying blood to the heart might become significantly constricted, reducing the supply of oxygen-rich blood to the heart.

Autoantibody test. The zinc transporter 8 autoantibody (ZnT8Ab) blood test is used in conjunction with other information and test results to identify if a person has type 1 diabetes rather than another kind of diabetes.

Autoimmune disease. Type 1 diabetes, hyperthyroidism produced by Graves’ disease, and hypothyroidism induced by Hashimoto’s disease are instances of immune system disorders in which the immune system wrongly assaults itself.

Autonomic neuropathy. Nerve injury affects the parts of the neurological system we can’t control, including the digestive system, blood vessels, urinary system, skin, and sex organs. Autonomic nerves are nerves that are not under a person’s control and operate independently.

Background retinopathy is the mildest form of diabetes-related eye illness, and it is accompanied by normal vision. Eye damage can advance to more serious forms with extended periods of diabetes or unmanaged blood sugars.

Basal rate. The amount of insulin necessary to maintain normal daily blood glucose changes; most people manufacture insulin continuously throughout the day to moderate glucose fluctuations. Giving a steady low dose of insulin through an insulin pump to a diabetic person mimics this natural behaviour.

Beta-cell. Beta cells are a type of cell found in the pancreas’ islets of Langerhans, which produce and release insulin to help control blood glucose levels.

Biosynthetic insulin. Unlike cow (bovine) or pork (porcine) insulins, genetically designed human insulin has a considerably lower chance of causing allergic reactions in persons who take it. Synthetic insulin is available in two forms: short-acting, which works to cover sugar spikes during meals, and longer-acting, which works to cover sugar spikes between meals and when fasting, such as at night.

Blood glucose. See glucose.

Blood glucose monitoring or testing. A way of determining the amount of sugar in your blood at home. Pricking your finger with a lancing instrument, depositing a drop of blood on a test strip, and inserting the test strip into a blood-glucose-testing metre that displays your blood glucose level is how blood glucose monitoring works. Blood sugar testing can also be performed in a lab. People with insulin-dependent diabetes should check their blood sugar three or four times a day. Glucose checks may be indicated before meals, two hours after meals, at sleep, in the middle of the night, and before and after activity, depending on the situation.

Blood pressure levels. Blood pressure is a two-number measurement of the pressure or force of blood against the blood vessels (arteries). The systolic pressure, or top number, is the measurement of pressure in the arteries when the heart beats and pumps more blood into the arteries. The second number, diastolic pressure, refers to the pressure in the arteries while the heart is at rest between beats. Non-pregnant diabetics should have a blood pressure of 130/80 or less.

Blood sugar. This is the sugar in your bloodstream, often known as blood glucose. Because insulin levels or actions aren’t operating properly in people with type 2 diabetes, they have too much blood sugar.

Blood urea nitrogen (BUN). A metabolic product that is eliminated in the urine; it is evaluated in the blood as an indirect indicator of kidney function. BUN levels in the blood may suggest early kidney impairment, indicating that the kidneys aren’t excreting BUN adequately.

Body mass index (BMI). Based on your height and weight, this algorithm determines if you are underweight, healthy weight, overweight, or obese. BMI calculates your risk of developing health problems based on your weight. You can figure it out here.

Brittle diabetes. When a person’s blood sugar level fluctuates rapidly from high to low and back again.

Bunion. The development of a sac of fluid beneath the skin and irregularities in the joint generate a bump or bulge on the first joint of the big toe; women are frequently affected because of tight-fitting or pointed shoes or high heels that put pressure on the toes, driving the joint outward. Bunions are more common in people who have flat feet or low arches. Bunions can be avoided by wearing comfortable, padded shoes. Bunions can cause further issues, such as a major infection if the big toe puts pressure on the other toes.

Callus. A small region of skin that has thickened and hardened due to friction or pressure; calluses can lead to other issues, such as serious infection. Calluses can be avoided by wearing shoes that fit properly.

Calorie. Food provides energy; certain foods have more calories than others. Proteins and carbohydrates have fewer calories than fats. Few are found in most veggies.

Carbohydrate. Carbohydrates are mostly sugars and starches that the body breaks down into glucose and are one of the three major food groups (a simple sugar that the body can use to feed its cells).

Carbohydrate counting. A meal-planning strategy in which you track the grammes of carbs in meals to ensure that you don’t consume more than a set quantity at each meal. Each carbohydrate serving is 15 grammes, so you can count them individually. If you choose this technique, your doctor or diabetes educator will advise you on how many total carbs to aim for in each meal or for the entire day.

Cardiologist. A heart specialist is a doctor who specialises in treating patients with heart disease.

Cardiovascular. Concerning the heart and blood vessels (arteries, veins, and capillaries).

Cholesterol. Cholesterol is a waxy, odourless chemical produced by the liver that is a key component of cell walls and neurons. It also aids digestion and hormone manufacturing. Cholesterol is obtained through animal meals in addition to being created by the body. Too much cholesterol in the blood produces an increase in LDL (“bad” cholesterol) particles, which leads to plaque accumulation in the arterial walls and atherosclerosis.

Claudication. See intermittent claudication.

Coma. Because their blood sugar is either high or too low, people with diabetes may experience an emergency in which they are unconscious.

Dawn phenomenon. A rise in blood sugar levels in the early morning hours.

Dehydration. Large loss of body water; if a diabetic has a very high blood sugar level, this results in greater water loss through increased urination and, as a result, acute thirst.

Diabetes. See type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes.

Diabetes-friendly food. Any food that is good for someone who has diabetes. Because a person with diabetes does not have to eat any specific foods, almost any healthful diet will suffice. Warning: Some processed items that aren’t particularly healthy may be called “diabetes-friendly,” so read nutrition labels carefully.

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). DKA is a serious, life-threatening syndrome caused by hyperglycemia (high blood sugar), dehydration, and acid accumulation that necessitates immediate fluid and insulin treatment. It occurs when there is insufficient insulin and cells become sugar-starved. Ketones, an alternate source of energy, are activated. The system produces an acid accumulation. Ketoacidosis might result in coma or death.

Dietitian. A registered dietitian (RD) is a nutrition specialist who helps people plan the types and amounts of meals they should eat for specific health conditions.

Emergency medical identification. People with diabetes or other medical conditions wear cards, bracelets, or necklaces with a printed message to inform others in the event of a medical emergency, such as a coma.

Endocrinologist. A doctor who specialises in hormone disorders.

Exchange lists. Each group lists food in a serving size to help those on special diets keep on track. A person can swap, trade, or substitute one food serving for another in the same group. Foods are divided into six categories in the list: starch/bread, meat, vegetables, fruit, milk, and fats. Each food item in a food group contains roughly the same amount of carbohydrate, protein, fat, and calories in one serving.

FPG (fasting plasma glucose) test. The FPG is the ideal way of diabetes screening, as it measures a person’s blood sugar level after fasting or not eating for at least 8 hours. Fasting blood glucose levels should be less than 100 milligrammes per deciliter (mg/dL). A fasting plasma glucose level of more than 100 mg/dL but less than 126 mg/dL indicates that the person has a fasting glucose level that is impaired but does not necessarily indicate diabetes. When fasting blood glucose is greater than 126 mg/dL and blood testing confirms abnormal results, diabetes is diagnosed. These tests can be repeated the next day, or glucose levels can be measured two hours after a meal. The findings should reveal a blood glucose level of over 200 mg/dL.

Fats. Substances that aid in the absorption of vitamins and the maintenance of good skin; is also the primary source of energy for the body. Saturated, unsaturated, polyunsaturated, monounsaturated, and trans fats are all present in food. The American Diabetes Association advocates minimising saturated fats and cholesterol in our meals to keep blood cholesterol and triglyceride (lipid) levels as close to normal as feasible. Saturated fats raise LDL (“bad”) cholesterol levels in the blood. Saturated fat intake should be kept to less than 10% of total calorie intake, and dietary cholesterol intake should be kept to fewer than 300 mg per day.

Fibre. A carbohydrate that the body is unable to metabolise. It is not decomposable into sugar. Fruits, vegetables, legumes, entire grains, and nuts all contain it. Because high-fibre foods are heavy and take more chewing, they may help you lose weight by making you feel filled for longer. Fibre is vital for digestion, and having enough of it can help you manage your blood sugar levels.

Food journaling (meal tracking). Writing down or otherwise keeping track of what you eat. Keeping track of your food intake has been proved to aid weight loss in studies.

Fructose. Fructose is a form of sugar found in many fruits and vegetables, as well as honey; it is used to sweeten some diet meals, but it is normally not suggested for persons with diabetes because it can create blood sugar problems.

Gangrene. The death of body tissues is mainly due to a lack of blood supply, and occurs most frequently in the legs and feet.

Gastroparesis. Food is not digested properly, and food does not flow through the stomach and intestinal tract normally, due to a type of nerve injury that affects the stomach and intestines. Because food transit time is reduced by nerve injury, it can produce nausea and vomiting. Low and unpredictable blood sugar levels can also be a problem with this sort of nerve injury.

Gestational diabetes. High blood sugar levels begin or are first noticed during pregnancy; hormonal changes during pregnancy impair insulin activity, resulting in high blood sugar levels. After labour, blood sugar levels usually recover to normal. Women who have experienced gestational diabetes, on the other hand, are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes later in life. Gestational diabetes can increase labour and delivery problems, as well as the risk of foetal complications due to the baby’s larger size.

Glaucoma. Glaucoma is an eye illness caused by increased intraocular pressure that can damage the optic nerve, resulting in reduced vision and blindness.

Glucagon. Glucagon is a hormone that elevates blood glucose levels by releasing stored glucose from the liver; it is frequently given when a person has passed out due to low blood sugar levels. The glucagon injection helps to elevate the blood glucose level.

Glucose. Dextrose is a simple sugar found in the blood that serves as the body’s primary source of energy.

Glucose tablets. Chewable sugar that diabetics use to swiftly boost their blood sugar when it falls dangerously low (hypoglycemia). These items are available in a wide range of tastes and formats, including gels, liquids, and powders. If you take a prescription that puts you at risk for this, your doctor may advise you to carry glucose tablets with you at all times, especially during exercise.

Glucose tolerance test. A test to see if a person has diabetes; is done in the morning in a lab or doctor’s office before the person eats. Prior to performing the test, it is recommended that you fast for at least 8 hours. First, a blood sample is collected when the patient is fasting. After that, the person drinks a sugary liquid. A second blood test is performed two hours later. Diabetes is defined as a fasting blood sugar level of 126 mg/dl or above.

Impaired fasting glucose is defined as a fasting blood sugar level of 100 to 125 mg/dl. A person is diagnosed with diabetes if their blood sugar level is equal to or greater than 200 mg/dl after a two-hour test. Impaired glucose tolerance is defined as a two-hour blood glucose level of 140 mg/dl to 199 mg/dl.

Glycated haemoglobin test (HbA1c). Haemoglobin is a component in red blood cells that transports oxygen to tissues and is used to measure how effectively you are controlling your diabetes. It can also bind to sugar in the blood, generating glycated haemoglobin, also known as Hemoglobin A1C. The test measures average blood sugar levels over a 6- to 12-week period and are used in conjunction with home glucose monitoring to alter medication. For persons with diabetes, the optimal range is often less than 7%. When the HbA1c level is equal to or more than 6.5 percent, this test can also be used to diagnose diabetes.

High blood pressure. High blood pressure is a disorder in which blood flows through the blood vessels at a force greater than normal; it strains the heart, damages the arteries, and raises the risk of heart attack, stroke, and kidney issues. Blood pressure in persons with diabetes should be less than 130/80.

High blood sugar. See hyperglycemia.

Home blood glucose monitoring. A method of determining how much sugar is in one’s blood; also known as “self-monitoring of blood glucose.” Because home glucose monitoring checks entire blood (plasma and blood cell components), the results may differ from lab results, which test glucose plasma levels. Glucose levels in the lab are usually greater than those measured at home with a glucose monitor.

Hormone. Insulin is a hormone produced by the beta cells of the pancreas that, when released, causes other cells to utilise glucose for energy.

Human insulin. Bioengineered insulin is identical to human insulin in that the DNA code for producing it is implanted into bacteria or yeast cells, and the insulin produced is purified and sold as human insulin.

Hyperglycemia. High blood sugar is a pretty typical complication for diabetics. Hyperglycemia can be caused by several factors. It occurs when the body lacks adequate insulin or is unable to use the insulin it does have.

Hypertension: See high blood pressure

Hypoglycemia. People with diabetes are more likely to experience low blood sugar. The majority of instances arise when your body has too much insulin and not enough glucose.

Impotence. The inability of the penis to become or stay erect is often known as “erectile dysfunction.” Because nerves and blood vessels in the penis are destroyed, some men may become impotent after a lengthy period of diabetes. Impotence affects 50 percent of males with type 2 diabetes, according to estimates.

Injection site rotation. Moving where a person injects insulin on their body; by changing the injection site, injections will be easier, safer, and more comfortable. If the same injection site is used repeatedly, hardened regions, lumps, or indentations might form beneath the skin, preventing the insulin from being fully absorbed. Lipodystrophies are lumps or indentations on the skin.

Injection sites. Locations of the body where people can readily inject insulin.

Insulin. Insulin is a hormone generated by the pancreas that aids the body’s utilisation of sugar for energy; insulin is produced by the pancreatic beta cells.

Insulin-dependent diabetes. Former term to describe Type 1 diabetes.

Insulin mixture. Premixed insulin is a mixture of short-, intermediate-, and long-acting insulin that can be purchased to obviate the need to mix insulin from two bottles.

Insulin pump. Insulin pumps are compact, computerised devices that are worn on a belt or carried in a pocket and have a small flexible tubing with a fine needle on the end. The needle is inserted and taped under the skin of the abdomen. Insulin is released into the body in a controlled, consistent flow.

Insulin reaction. Hypoglycemia occurs when a person with diabetes has injected too much insulin, eaten too little food, or exercised without ingesting additional food.

Insulin receptors. Insulin in the blood can join or bind with areas on the outside of a cell, allowing the cell to receive glucose from the blood and utilise it for energy.

Insulin shock. A dangerous condition that happens when blood sugar levels drop rapidly.

Insulin resistance syndrome or metabolic syndrome. A group of medical problems known as metabolic syndrome raises the risk of type 2 diabetes and heart disease. A diagnosis is critical because it allows you to make health modifications that reduce your risk. When a person has three or more of the following symptoms, they are diagnosed with insulin resistance syndrome or metabolic syndrome:

  • Blood pressure readings of 130/85 mmHg or higher.
  • A fasting blood sugar (glucose) level of 100 mg/dL or higher.
  • Waist circumference is large (a waistline of 40 inches or more for men; 35 inches or more for a woman).
  • Low HDL cholesterol (less than 40 mg/dL in men, less than 50 mg/dL in women).
  • Triglycerides equal to or over 150 mg/dL

Insulin resistance. Insulin’s action on muscle, fat, and liver cells becomes less effective; this effect occurs with both naturally occurring insulin and insulin injections. As a result, larger insulin levels are required to lower blood sugar.

Intermediate-acting insulin. This type of insulin is frequently paired with rapid- or short-acting insulin to cover insulin needs for around half the day or overnight. NPH and Lente are included.

Intermittent claudication. Atherosclerosis of the blood vessels supplying the muscles of the lower extremities causes pain in the legs muscles that comes and goes, commonly while walking or exercising. Claudication is most common in adults in their sixth or seventh decade of life and rises with age. Cigarette smoking, high blood pressure, and diabetes are all risk factors for artery narrowing, which can lead to claudication. This disorder can be treated with drugs.

Jet injector. A device that pushes insulin through the skin and into the tissue using high pressure.

Juvenile-onset diabetes. A former term used to describe type 1 diabetes.

Ketoacidosis. See diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA).

Ketone bodies. When your body doesn’t have enough insulin, it can’t use sugar (glucose) for energy, instead, it breaks down its own fat and protein for energy. Ketone bodies, an acid, occur in your urine and blood when fat is consumed. Ketoacidosis is a dangerous disorder caused by having too many ketones in your system. Ketones in the urine can be identified and monitored at home with tools like Ketostix, Chemstrips, and Acetest. Ketones should be examined on a regular basis if your blood sugar is frequently higher than 250 mg/dl, if you are unwell, or if you are pregnant and have diabetes.

Kidney disease (nephropathy). Nephropathy is any of numerous disorders induced by alterations in the kidneys’ very small blood channels in people with diabetes. The scarring of the kidneys as a result of these alterations might lead to renal failure. Nephropathy can develop in people who have had diabetes for a long time. When proteins are discovered in the urine, it is an early symptom of nephropathy.

Kidney threshold. See renal threshold.

Lancet. A fine, sharp-pointed needle is used to prick the skin to check blood sugar levels.

Laser treatment. Laser treatment is the use of a powerful beam of light (laser) to heal a damaged area; for example, a diabetic may receive laser treatments to heal blood vessels in the eye.

Late-onset diabetes. A former term used for type 2 diabetes.

Lipid. Another word for fat or fat-like material in the blood; like a car with a reserve fuel tank, the body stores fat as energy for future use. When the body requires energy, lipids can be broken down into fatty acids and burned similarly to glucose. Excess fat in the diet can lead to fat buildup in artery walls, a condition known as “atherosclerosis.” Weight gain can be caused by consuming too many calories from fats or other nutrients.

Low blood sugar, low blood glucose. See hypoglycemia.

Meal plan (meal planning). Any approach for planning out what you’ll consume. This word might relate to following a certain diet or just to the process of planning out what you’ll eat ahead of time.

Metabolism. All of the physical and chemical reactions that take place in the body when food is broken down, energy is created, and waste is produced.

Mg/dL (milligrams per deciliter). A measurement that reflects the amount of something in a certain amount of blood, such as glucose.

Mixed dose. A mixed dosage of insulin is a prescribed dose of insulin that mixes two types of insulin and injects them at the same time; a mixed dose often contains fast-acting and longer-acting insulin. A mixed dose can be delivered in a pre-mixed syringe or made on the spot. To improve blood sugar control, a mixed dose may be recommended.

Natural no-calorie sweeteners. Artificial sweeteners are similar, but these come from a natural source. Because it comes from the stevia plant, stevia (Truvia, PureVia, etc.) is considered a natural sweetener.

Nephropathy. Nephropathy is a kidney disease caused by damage to the small blood arteries or the blood-cleaning units in the kidneys; people who have had diabetes for a long time may acquire nephropathy.

Neurologist. A doctor who specialises in treating nervous system disorders (brain, spinal cord, and nerves).

Neuropathy. Nerve injury can occur in patients who have poorly controlled diabetes.

Non-insulin-dependent diabetes. Former term for type 2 diabetes.

Nutritionist. See dietitian.

Obesity. Excess body fat is described by a word that is defined by a person’s weight and height, or by their body mass index (BMI). Obesity is defined as a BMI of 30 or higher. Obesity reduces your body’s sensitivity to insulin. Diabetes is thought to be linked to excess body fat.

Ophthalmologist. A doctor who specialises in treating patients with eye disorders or injuries.

Optometrist. A person who is professionally trained to test the eyes and diagnose and cure eye problems, as well as some diseases, through the prescription and adaptation of corrective lenses.

After optometry school, some optometrists pursue extra clinical training or complete a speciality fellowship.

Oral diabetes medications. Oral diabetic drugs are provided for persons whose pancreas produces some insulin but not enough to control blood sugar levels. During pregnancy, these drugs are not used to treat diabetes.

Overweight. A person with a BMI of 25 to 29.9 who is overweight or obese is considered obese. Overweight people are more likely to develop health concerns like type 2 diabetes.

Pancreas. It’s a little organ behind the lower section of the stomach that produces insulin so the body can utilise sugar for energy.

Peak action. When something’s influence is as strong as it can be, such as when insulin has the greatest impact on blood sugar.

Periodontal disease. Damage to the gums and tissues surrounding the teeth; diabetics are more likely to get the periodontal disease than those who do not.

Peripheral neuropathy. A type of nerve damage most commonly affecting the feet and legs.

Peripheral vascular disease (PVD). PVD is a disorder that affects the blood vessels outside of the heart, most commonly the hands and feet; it is caused by decreased blood flow and artery narrowing caused by atherosclerosis; those who have had diabetes for a long period are more likely to acquire PVD.

Podiatrist. A foot specialist is a doctor who diagnoses and treats foot ailments.

Polydipsia. An excessive thirst that lasts for an extended amount of time could indicate diabetes.

Polyphagia. Excessive hunger and eating could indicate the presence of diabetes. When insulin levels are low or insulin resistance is present, the body’s cells do not receive enough sugar, and hunger arises. People with polyphagia often lose weight while eating more than usual because the extra calories are excreted as sugar in the urine (glucose).

Polyunsaturated fat. A form of fat that can be used to replace saturated fats in the diet and lower LDL cholesterol (the “bad” cholesterol).

Protein. Proteins are made up of amino acids, which are known as the “building blocks of cells.” They are one of three major food groups. Protein is required for cell growth and repair. Meat, fish, poultry, eggs, lentils, and dairy products are all high in protein.

Rapid-acting Insulin. This form of insulin is used with longer-acting insulin and covers insulin needs for meals taken at the same time as the injection. Humalog, Novolog, and Apidra are all included.

Rebound effect. See Somogyi effect.

Regular insulin. A type of insulin that is rapid-acting.

Renal. Relating to the kidneys.

Retina. The light-sensing centre of the rear lining of the eye; contains numerous small blood vessels that can be damaged if a person has had diabetes for a long period.

Retinopathy. A condition affecting the retina’s tiny blood vessels.

Risk factor. Anything that enhances a person’s risk of contracting a sickness or ailment.

Saccharin. Artificial sweetener that is used in place of sugar since they have no calories and do not raise blood sugar levels.

Self-blood glucose monitoring. See home blood glucose monitoring.

Short-acting insulin. Includes humulin or Novolin, or Velosulin, and covers insulin demands for meals consumed within 30-60 minutes (in an insulin pump).

Sodium. A salt-based mineral. When you take too much, as most Americans do, your blood pressure rises, increasing your risk of heart attack and stroke. Because these issues are frequently linked to diabetes, it’s crucial to keep track of your intake. Processed foods have a high salt content.

Somogyi effect. It is also known as the “rebound effect,” and it occurs when blood sugar levels rise from an extremely low level to an extraordinarily high level. It usually occurs late at night or early in the morning. People who have high blood sugar levels in the morning may need to check their sugar levels in the middle of the night. If blood sugar levels are consistently low, an evening snack or a reduction in insulin doses may be suggested.

Sorbitol. It is a sweetener used in diet meals, and it is called a “nutritive sweetener” since it has four calories per gramme, just as table sugar and starch. Many items advertised as “sugar-free” or “no sugar added” include these chemicals, which can boost blood glucose levels. “Sugar-free” does not necessarily equal “carbohydrate-free.”

Starch. Grain and starchy vegetables including peas, maize, beans, and potatoes include this type of carbohydrate. Starch, like sugar (another form of carbohydrate), can spike your blood sugar levels, so keep track of how much you’re eating.

Stevia. Truvia is the brand name for a sugar replacement made from the stevia leaf that contains no calories.

Strength training. Physical activity that is aimed at increasing muscle mass or strength. Lifting free weights, using weight machines, and using resistance bands are just a few examples. Resistance exercise, also known as resistance training, can help your body handle insulin more effectively.

Sucrose. Table sugar is a type of sugar that the body needs breaks down into a simpler form before it can be absorbed and carried to the cells by the circulation.

Sucralose. An artificial sweetener that is 600 times sweeter than sugar; can be used in cooking. Splenda is a brand name for sucralose.

Sugar. Sugar is a type of carbohydrate that tastes sweet and provides rapid and simple energy to the body. Lactose, glucose, fructose, and sucrose are examples of sugars.

Sugar alcohols. Low-calorie sweeteners are frequently seen in “diet” and “sugar-free” meals. The ending is common “-ol.” Erythritol, sorbitol, and xylitol are among the examples. Foods containing these sweeteners may still include carbohydrates and hence boost blood sugar levels, so read the nutrition label carefully. Sugar alcohols can upset some people’s stomachs.

Sulfonylureas. People take pills or capsules to reduce their blood sugar levels; these oral diabetes treatments operate by making your pancreas generate more insulin.

Triglyceride. The majority of the fats we eat, including butter, margarine, and oils, are in the triglyceride form, which is transported in the blood. Triglycerides in excess are accumulated in fat cells all throughout the body. Insulin is required by the body to eliminate this sort of fat from the bloodstream.

Type 1 diabetes. Kind 1 diabetes is a type of diabetes in which the pancreas’ insulin-producing cells (known as beta cells) are destroyed; people with type 1 diabetes produce little or no insulin, preventing glucose from reaching the body’s cells for use as energy. Blood sugar levels rise as a result of this. Insulin injections are required for people with type 1 diabetes to maintain blood sugar control.

Type 2 diabetes. A type of diabetes in which the amount of insulin produced is insufficient or the body’s response to it is abnormal; as a result, glucose in the blood cannot reach the body’s cells for utilisation as energy. The level of glucose (sugar) in the blood rises as a result of this.

U-100. See unit of insulin.

Ulcer. A deep pain caused by a skin break. Minor scrapes on the feet or legs, cuts that heal slowly, or the rubbing of poorly fitting shoes can all cause ulcers in people with diabetes. Ulcers can develop infected and need to be treated as soon as possible.

Ultralente insulin. Long-acting insulin acts for 25 to 36 hours following injection. This form of insulin begins to operate four to five hours after injection and is most effective eight to fourteen hours later.

Unit of insulin. The most frequent concentration of insulin is U-100, which is the simplest basic measure of insulin. U-100 indicates that 100 units of insulin are present per millilitre (ml) of liquid. Insulin in the U-500 type is provided for the rare patient with extreme insulin resistance.

Unstable diabetes. See brittle diabetes.

Urine testing. If you have type 1 diabetes, are pregnant and have diabetes, or have gestational diabetes, your doctor may request that you check your urine for ketones. This is a simple test that may be done at home using a dipstick measure.

Urologist. A specialist who specialises in the treatment of both men’s and women’s urinary tracts, as well as male genital organs.

Vaginitis. The vaginal tissues are inflamed or infected, and a woman with this condition may experience itching, burning, or vaginal discharge. Women with diabetes are more likely to get vaginitis than women without diabetes.

Vascular. Relating to the body’s blood vessels (arteries, veins, and capillaries).

Vein. A blood vessel that carries blood to the heart.

Vitrectomy. An eye surgeon removes the clouded gel from the centre of the eyeball because it contains blood and scar tissue that limits vision; the clouded gel is replaced with a clear fluid.

Whole grains. Grains with the whole grain kernel, including the nutrient-dense bran and germ. The bran and germ have been removed from refined grains (such as white bread), leaving just the starchy endosperm. Because whole grains include more fibre than refined grains, they are digested more slowly and cause blood sugar levels to rise more slowly.

Xylitol. It is a sugar alcohol that the body consumes slowly and contains fewer calories than table sugar, making it a nutritive sweetener utilised in dietary meals.