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Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes Mellitus


Types of Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes mellitus, usually known as diabetes, refers to a group of diseases that affect how your body converts food into energy.

When you ingest a carbohydrate, your body converts it to glucose, a sugar that enters your bloodstream. Insulin is a hormone that helps transfer glucose from your bloodstream into your cells, where it is used for energy.

When you don’t get treatment for diabetes, your body doesn’t use insulin as efficiently as it should. A condition known as high blood sugar occurs when too much glucose remains in your blood. This can result in serious or even life-threatening health issues.

Diabetes has no known cure. Treatment and lifestyle adjustments, however, can help you live a long and healthy life.

Diabetes manifests itself in various ways depending on the reason.


When your blood sugar level is higher than it should be but not high enough for your doctor to diagnose diabetes, you have prediabetes. More than a third of Americans have it, yet the majority of them are unaware of it.

Prediabetes increases your chances of developing type 2 diabetes and heart problems. Exercising more and decreasing weight, even as little as 5% to 7% of your body weight, can help reduce those chances.

Insulin-dependent diabetes is another name for type 1 diabetes. Because it commonly originates in youth, it was previously known as juvenile-onset diabetes.

Diabetes type 1 is an autoimmune disease. Antibodies target your pancreas, causing it to malfunction. The organ has been destroyed and no longer produces insulin.

This type of diabetes could be caused by your genes. It could also be caused by issues with insulin-producing cells in your pancreas.

Damage to microscopic blood vessels in your eyes (diabetic retinopathy), nerves (diabetic neuropathy), and kidneys (diabetic kidney disease) create many of the health concerns associated with type 1 diabetes (diabetic nephropathy). Type 1 diabetes increases the risk of heart disease and stroke.

Insulin is injected into the fatty tissue just beneath the epidermis to treat type 1 diabetes. You could use:

  • Syringes
  • Insulin pens that use prefilled cartridges and a thin needle
  • Jet injectors that use high-pressure air to send a spray of insulin through your skin
  • Pumps that send insulin through a tube to a catheter under the skin of your belly

The A1C blood test is used to calculate your blood sugar levels during the past three months. It is used by your doctor to determine how well your blood sugar is controlled. This allows them to determine your risk of complications.

If you have type 1 diabetes, you must make the following changes:

  • Testing your blood sugar levels on a regular basis
  • Meal planning with care
  • Daily exercise
  • As required take insulin and other medications

Type 2 diabetes was previously known as non-insulin-dependent diabetes or adult-onset diabetes. However, it has become increasingly common in children and teenagers in the last 20 years, owing to an increase in the number of young people who are overweight or obese. Type 2 diabetes affects approximately 90% of diabetics.

Your pancreas normally produces some insulin when you have type 2 diabetes. However, either it is insufficient or your body does not utilise it properly. Insulin resistance occurs in adipose, liver, and muscle cells when they do not respond to insulin.

Type 2 diabetes is usually less severe than type 1. However, it can still create serious health problems, particularly in the tiny blood arteries that go through your kidneys, nerves, and eyes. Type 2 diabetes increases your chances of developing heart disease and stroke.

Obese people, who are more than 20% overweight for their height, are at a higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes and the health complications that come with it. Insulin resistance is common in obese people, so your pancreas has to work harder to produce more insulin. Keeping your blood sugar levels in the normal range, however, isn’t enough.

Type 2 diabetes is treated by maintaining a healthy weight, eating well, and exercising. Some folks require medication as well.

An A1C test may be performed a few times a year by your doctor to determine how effectively you’ve been regulating your blood sugar.

Insulin resistance is a common side effect of pregnancy. Gestational diabetes develops when this happens. Doctors frequently detect it in the middle or late stages of pregnancy. Because a woman’s blood sugars pass through her placenta and onto her baby, gestational diabetes must be managed to preserve the baby’s growth and development.

Gestational diabetes affects 2% to 10% of pregnancies, according to doctors. It typically goes away when the baby is born. However, up to 10% of women with gestational diabetes develop type 2 diabetes weeks or even years later.

The infant is more in danger from gestational diabetes than the mother. A baby’s weight gain could be uncommon before birth, he or she may have difficulty breathing at birth, or have a higher risk of obesity and diabetes later in life. A huge baby may necessitate a caesarean section, or the mother may suffer harm to her heart, kidneys, nerves, or eyes.

Treatment for gestational diabetes entails:

  • Meal planning to ensure you obtain enough nutrition while avoiding excess fat and calories
  • Daily exercise
  • Keeping your weight gain under control
  • If necessary, taking insulin to manage your blood sugar levels

Other Types of Diabetes

Other conditions may be the cause of diabetes in 1% to 5% of persons. Pancreatic illnesses, certain operations and drugs, and infections are among them. Your doctor may want to monitor your blood sugar levels in certain situations.