Multiple Sclerosis

Multiple Sclerosis

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a brain and spinal cord disease that can cause a variety of symptoms, including vision, arm or leg mobility, feeling, and balance issues.
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a brain and spinal cord disease that can cause a variety of symptoms, including vision, arm or leg mobility, feeling, and balance issues.

Understanding Multiple Sclerosis (MS)

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic neurological disease that affects the central nervous system (CNS). Your immune system destroys myelin, the protective covering that surrounds nerve fibres when you have MS.

MS produces inflammation as well as transient lesions. It can also result in long-term scar tissue, making it difficult for your brain to relay messages to the rest of your body.

Although there is no treatment for MS, symptoms can be managed. Learn more about MS’s causes, treatment options, and more.

It’s a chronic illness that can sometimes lead to major disability, however it can also be moderate.

It is feasible to treat symptoms in many circumstances. People with MS have a somewhat shorter life expectancy.

It’s most common in adults in their 20s and 30s, although it can strike anyone at any age. It affects around 2 to 3 times as many women as it does men.

One of the most common causes of disability in young adults is multiple sclerosis (MS).

What are the
symptoms of
Multiple sclerosis (MS)?

Multiple Sclerosis Symptoms Mobile

What are the symptoms of
Multiple sclerosis (MS)?

Multiple sclerosis (MS) can cause a wide range of symptoms and affect any region of the body. The condition has a different impact on each person who has it.

The signs and symptoms can be unpredictable. Symptoms develop and worsen over time for some people, while they come and go for others.

Relapses are defined as periods in which symptoms worsen. Remissions are periods of time when symptoms improve or disappear.

Symptoms can include:
Fatigue
• Vision problems
• Muscle spasms, stiffness and weakness
• Mobility problems
• Pain
• Problems with thinking, learning and planning
• Depression
• Anxiety
• Sexual problems
• Bladder problems
• Bowl problems
• Speech and swallowing difficulties

 

The majority of MS patients only have a couple of these symptoms.
If you’re concerned that you may be showing early indications of MS, see your doctor. Because the symptoms are similar to those of a variety of different disorders, they aren’t always due to MS.

Fatigue

One of the most prevalent and troubling symptoms of MS is exhaustion.

It’s commonly described as an overwhelming sense of tiredness that makes even the most basic tasks difficult.

Fatigue can greatly disrupt your everyday activities, and it tends to worsen at the end of the day, in hot weather, after exercising, or when you’re sick.

Vision problems

The first symptom of MS is usually a problem with one of your eyes, it affects about 1 out of every 4 patients (optic neuritis).

You could have the following symptoms:

  • some temporary loss of vision in the affected eye, usually lasting for days to weeks
  • colour blindness
  • eye pain, which is usually worse when moving the eye
  • flashes of light when moving the eye

Other problems that can occur in the eyes include:

  • double vision
  • involuntary eye movements, which can make it seem as though stationary objects are jumping around

It’s possible that both of your eyes will be affected.

Abnormal sensations

Initially, abnormal feelings are a common symptom of MS.
This usually manifests as numbness or tingling in various portions of your body, such as your arms, legs, or trunk, and lasts for a few days.

Muscle spasms, stiffness and weakness

MS can cause your muscles to do the following:

  • Contracting painfully and tightly (spasm)
  • Stiffening and resistance to movement (spasticity)
  • Feel weak

Mobility issues

Walking and moving around can be challenging with MS, especially if you also have muscle weakness and stiffness.

You might have the following symptoms:

  • Clumsiness
  • Difficulty with balance and coordination (ataxia)
  • Shaking of the limbs (tremor)
  • Dizziness and vertigo can make it feel as though everything around you is spinning

Pain

Some MS patients experience pain, which can come in two ways.

MS-related discomfort (neuropathic pain)

Damage to the neurological system causes this discomfort.It could include the following:

  • stabbing pains in the face
  • a variety of sensations in the trunk and limbs, including feelings of burning, pins and needles, hugging or squeezing

Muscle spasms can be excruciatingly painful.

Musculoskeletal pain

MS can cause back, neck, and joint discomfort indirectly, especially in patients who have trouble walking or moving around, putting pressure on their lower back or hips.

Thinking, learning, and planning issues

Cognitive dysfunction is a term used to describe problems with thinking, learning, and planning in patients with MS.

This can include things like:

  • Problems learning and remembering new things – long-term memory is usually unaffected
  • Slowness in processing lots of information or multitasking
  • A shortened attention span
  • Getting stuck on words
  • Problems with understanding and processing visual information, such as reading a map
  • Difficulty with planning and problem solving – people often report that they know what they want to do, but can’t grasp how to do it
  • Problems with reasoning, such as mathematical laws or solving puzzles

However, many of these issues aren’t unique to MS and can be caused by a variety of other disorders, such as depression and anxiety, or even certain medications.

Mental health issues

Many patients with MS go through depressive episodes. It’s unknown if this is caused directly by MS, or is the effect of the stress of living with a chronic illness, or both.

Anxiety can be a concern for persons with MS, presumably due to the condition’s unpredictable nature.

People with MS may have rapid and intense mood fluctuations, bursting into tears, laughing, or shouting aggressively for no apparent reason in rare circumstances.

Sexual problems

Sexual function can be affected by MS.

It’s common for men with MS to have trouble getting or keeping an erection (erectile dysfunction).

They may also notice that ejaculating takes a lot longer when having sex or masturbating, and they may even lose the ability to ejaculate entirely.

The difficulty in reaching orgasm, as well as diminished vaginal lubrication and sensation, are issues for women.

MS patients, both men and women, may find that they are less interested in sex than they were previously.

This could be a direct outcome of having MS, or it could be a side effect of living with it.

Bladder issues

Bladder issues are frequent among MS patients.
They may include the following:
  • Having to pee more frequently
  • Having a sudden, urgent need to pee, can lead to unintentionally passing urine (urge incontinence)
  • Difficulty emptying the bladder completely
  • Having to get up frequently during the night to pee
  • Recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs)
Other than MS, these issues might be caused by a variety of factors.

Bowel issues

Many persons with MS have issues with gastrointestinal function as well.

The most prevalent issue is constipation. Passing stools may be difficult for you, and you may pass them less regularly than usual.

Although bowel incontinence is less common, it is frequently associated with constipation.

A trapped stool can irritate the intestinal wall, leading it to create extra fluid and mucus, which can seep out of your bottom.

Some of these issues aren’t unique to MS, and they can even be the result of medications, such as pain relievers.

Speech and swallowing issues

MS causes lesions in the brain that can affect speech.

Dysphagia (difficulty chewing or swallowing) affects some people with MS at some time.

Slurred or difficult-to-understand speech is another possibility (dysarthria).

Other symptoms

Other MS symptoms that are very prevalent include:

  • Acute or chronic pain
  • Tremors
  • Cognitive issues involving concentration, memory, and word-finding
  • Difficulty chewing and swallowing
  • Sleep issues
  • Problems with bladder control.

What Causes
Multiple sclerosis (MS)?

Multiple Sclerosis Causes Mobile

What Causes
Multiple sclerosis (MS)?

Multiple sclerosis (MS) can cause a wide range of symptoms and affect any region of the body. The condition has a different impact on each person who has it.

The signs and symptoms can be unpredictable. Symptoms develop and worsen over time for some people, while they come and go for others.

Relapses are defined as periods in which symptoms worsen. Remissions are periods of time when symptoms improve or disappear.

It’s unclear why someone develops multiple sclerosis (MS). It isn’t the result of anything you’ve done, and it’s unclear whether it can be avoided.
According to what we know thus far, it’s caused by a mix of hereditary and environmental variables.

What happens in multiple sclerosis

MS is an autoimmune disease in which your immune system misidentifies a portion of your body as a foreign object and attacks it.

In MS, the myelin coating in the brain and spinal cord are attacked.

This is the layer that protects and aids the transmission of electrical signals from the brain to the rest of the body.

The myelin sheath becomes irritated in small areas (plaques or lesions) as a result of the attacks, which can be observed on an MRI scan.

The messages travelling down the nerves can be disrupted by these inflammatory patches.

It can slow them down, muddle them up, send them in the incorrect direction, or altogether stop them from going through.

MS symptoms and indications are caused by this disturbance.

When the inflammation goes away, the myelin sheath can become scarred (sclerosis).

These attacks, especially if they are frequent and repetitive, can potentially cause lasting nerve damage.

Causes of multiple sclerosis

What causes the immune system to target the myelin sheath is unknown.

It appears to be caused in part by genes inherited from your parents and in part by external stimuli that may activate the illness.

The following are some of the things that have been suggested as possible MS causes:

  • Your genetic code – MS is not inherited directly, but persons who are related to someone who has it are more likely to get it. The likelihood of a sibling or child of someone with MS getting it is thought to be around 2 to 3%.
  • Lack of sunlight and vitamin D – MS is more common in areas far from the equator, which could indicate that a lack of sunlight and low vitamin D levels are factors in the disease, though it’s unclear whether vitamin D supplementation can help prevent MS.
  • Smoking – When compared to non-smokers, smokers are nearly twice as likely to get MS.
  • Teenage obesity – Obesity throughout adolescence is linked to an increased chance of acquiring MS.
  • Viral infections – Infections, notably those produced by the Epstein-Barr virus (which causes glandular fever), have been considered as a possible trigger for the immune system, resulting in MS in certain people.
  • Being female – Women are two to three times more likely than men to get MS; the reason for this is unknown.

Additional research is required to understand more about why MS develops and whether it is possible to prevent it.

How is
Multiple sclerosis
diagnosed?

Multiple Sclerosis Diagnosis Mobile

How is Multiple sclerosis diagnosed?

Multiple sclerosis (MS) can cause a wide range of symptoms and affect any region of the body. The condition has a different impact on each person who has it.

The signs and symptoms can be unpredictable. Symptoms develop and worsen over time for some people, while they come and go for others.

Relapses are defined as periods in which symptoms worsen. Remissions are periods of time when symptoms improve or disappear.

It can be difficult to tell if your symptoms are caused by multiple sclerosis (MS) at first because some of the symptoms are unclear or similar to those of other diseases.
If you suspect you have MS symptoms, see your doctor.
Giving them a detailed description of the type and pattern of symptoms you’re experiencing will aid them in determining whether you have the ailment.
If your doctor suspects you have MS, you should see a neurologist, a doctor who specialises in nervous system disorders, for an evaluation.

Tests for multiple sclerosis

MS diagnosis is difficult because there is no single test that can accurately detect the disease. It’s probable that you’ll need to rule out other possible reasons for your symptoms first.
It’s also likely that you won’t be able to confirm a diagnosis if you’ve just had one incident of MS-like symptoms.
Only once there is evidence of at least two independent attacks can a diagnosis be made with certainty, but this may include signals of attacks on an MRI scan that you are unaware of.
This page discusses some of the tests you may need to confirm MS.
Neurological examination
Your neurologist will examine your eyesight, eye movements, hand or leg strength, balance and coordination, speech, and reflexes for abnormalities, changes, or weakness.
These tests can reveal whether your nerves have been destroyed in a way that suggests MS.

 

MRI scan

An MRI scan is a painless procedure that produces detailed images of the inside of the body using high magnetic fields and radio waves.
It can reveal whether the myelin sheath (the layer that surrounds your nerves) in your brain and spinal cord has been damaged or scarred. In most persons with MS, discovering this can assist confirm a diagnosis.
A typical MRI scanner resembles a long tube or tunnel. While the scan is being performed, the equipment is loud, and some people may feel claustrophobic. If you’re concerned about this, speak with your neurologist.
Most people have scans without any problems because newer scanners are more open and function faster than older scanners.

Evoked potential test

Evoked potential tests come in a variety of forms. The most common form evaluates the ability of the eyes to function properly.

Your brainwaves are monitored using little, sticky patches called electrodes put on your head while light patterns are shown to your eyes.

It’s a harmless test that can reveal whether your brain takes longer than usual to process information.

Lumbar puncture

A lumbar puncture is a technique that involves putting a needle into your lower back and extracting a sample of your spinal fluid.

The fluid that surrounds your brain and spinal cord is called spinal fluid, and changes in it can indicate nervous system issues.

The operation is performed under local anaesthetic, which means you will be awake during the procedure but the area where the needle will be inserted will be numbed.

Immune cells and antibodies are found in the sample, indicating that your immune system has been fighting disease in your brain and spinal cord.

Lumbar punctures are quite safe, but they are often unpleasant and can result in a headache that can linger for several days.

If your symptoms or scans are uncommon, a lumbar puncture will most likely be performed to provide additional information.

Blood tests

Blood tests are frequently done to rule out other possible reasons for your symptoms, such as vitamin deficiencies or neuromyelitis optica, a very rare but possibly very comparable disorder.

Determining the type of multiple sclerosis

Your neurologist may be able to determine which type of MS you have if you’ve been diagnosed with MS.
This will be mostly determined by:
  • The pattern of your symptoms – such as whether you experience periods when your symptoms get worse (relapses), improve (remissions), or whether they get steadily worse (progress)
  • The results of an MRI scan – such as whether there’s evidence that lesions in your nervous system have developed at different times and at different places in your body

However, because the symptoms of MS are so variable and unpredictable, the type of MS you have generally only become obvious over time.

Because progressive MS normally develops slowly, it can take several years to get an appropriate diagnosis.

 

Multiple sclerosis
Treatments

multiple sclerosis treatment mobile

Multiple sclerosis Treatments

MS can induce a variety of symptoms, each of which can be treated separately.

Fatigue

Fatigue is a common symptom of MS.

Amantadine may be administered for exhaustion caused by MS, but this medication may have limited benefit.

You should also be offered general tiredness management suggestions, such as:

  • Exercise
  • Keeping healthy sleep patterns
  • Energy-saving techniques
  • Avoiding medicine that can worsen fatigue (including some painkillers)

Some persons with MS can benefit from specialised tiredness management courses or therapy, such as cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT).

Visual issues

Visual issues caused by MS normally recover on their own within a few weeks, so you may not need treatment.

If your symptoms are extremely severe, steroids may be recommended to help you recover more quickly.

Gabapentin, for example, can help if you have problems with involuntary eye movements.

Ophthalmologists can help some persons with double vision (eye specialists).

Muscle spasms and stiffness

Physiotherapy can help with muscle spasms and stiffness (spasticity).

If your range of motion is restricted, techniques such as stretching exercises can help.

If your muscle spasms are severe, you may be given a prescription for a muscle relaxant.

Baclofen or gabapentin are the most common options, however other medications like tizanidine, diazepam, clonazepam, and dantrolene are also available.

These medicines all have side effects, such as dizziness, weakness, nausea, and diarrhoea, so talk to your MS nurse or GP about which one is best for you.

If these medications don’t work, you might be offered a four-week trial of nabiximols (Sativex). A cannabis-based treatment that is sprayed into the mouth. Learn more about medicinal cannabis.

Mobility issues

Muscle spasms and spasticity are the most common causes of mobility issues, although they can also be caused by muscle weakness, balance issues, or dizziness.

If you have mobility issues, you may benefit from the following:

  • An exercise programme supervised by a physiotherapist
  • Special exercises called vestibular rehabilitation if you have problems with balance
  • Medicine for dizziness or tremors
  • mobility aids, such as a walking stick or occasionally a wheelchair
  • Home adaptations, such as stairlifts or railings

An occupational therapist can analyse your home and make recommendations for modifications that may be beneficial.

Neuropathic pain

Damage to your nerves causes neuropathic pain, which is frequently acute and stabbing.

It can also manifest as a burning feeling or severe skin sensitivity.

Gabapentin, carbamazepine, and amitriptyline are all medications that can be used to treat this sort of pain.

This is an older form of antidepressant that is now primarily used to manage pain.

Musculoskeletal pain

Muscles and joints in your body can be stressed and strained as a result of MS.

A physiotherapist may be able to alleviate your pain by recommending exercise or improved seated arrangements.

If your discomfort is severe, medications may be recommended.

Alternatively, you could use a transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) gadget to stimulate your nerves.

Problems with memory, learning, and thinking

If you have memory or cognitive impairments, whatever treatment you take will be thoroughly explained and recorded so that you understand everything.

You should see a clinical psychologist, who will examine your issues and make recommendations for how to deal with them.

Emotional problems

You should see an expert, such as a clinical psychologist if you have emotional outbursts such as laughing or sobbing for no apparent cause.

They may recommend antidepressant medication as a therapy option.

Antidepressants or treatments, such as CBT, can be used to help people with MS who are depressed.

Antidepressants or benzodiazepines, a type of tranquillizer with a calming effect, may be administered if you are frequently anxious or disturbed.

Sexual problems

Men with MS who have trouble getting or keeping an erection (erectile dysfunction) may be prescribed sildenafil, a drug that temporarily increases blood flow to the penis (Viagra). If you have MS, the NHS will give you this.

Both men and women with MS who are having problems with reduced desire in sex or difficulty attaining climax may benefit from relationship counselling or seeing a sex therapist.

Bladder problems

If you have an overactive bladder or need to pee frequently during the night, there are several medications available.

If you’re having trouble emptying your bladder, a continence nurse or physiotherapist can help.

Some persons may benefit from using hand-held external stimulators to assist them to start peeing or emptying their bladder.

When necessary, a catheter can be used to empty the bladder.

In some MS patients, a long-term catheter may be required to keep the bladder emptying safely.

You may be directed to a continence consultant or urologist, who can provide specialised treatment and counselling, such as botulinum toxin injections, bladder exercises, or electrical stimulation of the bladder muscles.

Learn more about urinary incontinence treatment.

Bowel problems

Changing your diet or taking laxatives may be effective in treating mild to moderate constipation.

Suppositories, which are placed into your bottom, or an enema may be used to treat more severe constipation.

An enema is a procedure in which a liquid medicine is infused into your stomach and large intestine, softening and flushing out your stools.

Anti-diarrhoea drugs or pelvic floor exercises to strengthen your rectal muscles can be used to treat bowel incontinence.

Speech and swallowing difficulties

A speech and language therapist can assist you in overcoming speech and swallowing difficulties.

They can, for example, advise on easy-to-swallow foods and suggest exercises to strengthen the muscles involved in speech and swallowing.

Some patients will need to be fed through a tube that is inserted into the stomach through the skin if their swallowing problems grow severe.

Disease-modifying therapies

If you have relapsing MS, talk to your doctor about additional medicines that could help you manage your symptoms.

Although MS is incurable, some medications can help people experience fewer and milder relapses. Disease-modifying medicines are what they’re called.

These are designed to lessen the amount of damage and scarring to the myelin sheath (a layer that surrounds your nerves) that is linked to MS relapses.

Although definitive data on their long-term benefits are limited, some medicines may assist to reduce the progression of MS impairment.

Not everyone with MS is a good candidate for disease-modifying treatments. They’re only given to those with relapsing-remitting MS or secondary progressive MS who meet particular requirements, such as the number of relapses.

People who have never had a relapse are unlikely to benefit from the treatments, but they may still face negative effects.

DMTs are medications that are used to decrease the course of MS and reduce the likelihood of relapse.

Glatiramer acetate (Copaxone) and beta interferons, such as: Glatiramer acetate (Copaxone) and beta interferons, such as:

  • Avonex
  • Betaseron
  • Extavia
  • Plegridy
  • Rebif

For RRMS, oral medicines include:

  • Dimethyl fumarate (Tecfidera)
  • Fingolimod (Gilenya)
  • Teriflunomide (Aubagio)
  • Cladribine (Mavenclad)
  • Diroximel fumarate (Vumerity)
  • Siponimod (Mayzent)

Treatments for RRMS that involve intravenous (IV) infusions include:

  • alemtuzumab (Lemtrada)
  • natalizumab (Tysabri)
  • mitoxantrone (Novantrone)
  • Ocrelizumab (Ocrevus)

Not all MS drugs will be available, and not all of them will be appropriate for everyone. Consult your doctor about which drugs are best for you, as well as the dangers and advantages of each.

Clinical trials

Clinical trials, in which new medicines, stem cell therapy and treatment combinations are compared to standard treatments, have made significant advances in MS treatment.

All clinical trials in the United Kingdom are rigorously monitored to ensure that they are worthwhile and conducted safely.

Clinical trial participants often outperform those receiving conventional care.

If you’re interested in participating in a clinical study, talk to your doctor.

Complementary and alternative therapies for multiple sclerosis

Complementary therapy can help some people with MS feel better.

Many complementary treatments and therapies relieve symptoms, there have been several scientific trials which evidence their effectiveness.

Many people believe that supplementary treatments are completely safe. However, people can have problems from time to time, and it’s not a good idea to use them instead of drugs prescribed by your doctor.

It’s critical to inform your doctor if you intend to use an alternative treatment in addition to your prescribed medications.

Care and support

If you are having trouble taking care of yourself, your local government may be able to assist you. Request an assessment of your care and assistance needs.

Alternative and Complementary therapies used
when treating Multiple sclerosis patients

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy
for Multiple Sclerosis (MS)

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) has been reluctant to gain acceptance as an alternative therapy for multiple sclerosis (MS) in the medical profession. However, scientific data suggests that oxygen therapy can help MS patients, and doctors throughout the world are increasingly suggesting it as part of their patient’s treatment plans.

Cryotherapy
for Multiple sclerosis (MS)

Cryotherapy has many benefits that make it an attractive addition to treatment for MS and other health conditions.  Its advantages include:

  • Inflammation reduction
  • Relieving nerve irritation and pain relief
  • Improving mood
  • Reducing fatigue

Ozone therapy
for Multiple sclerosis (MS)

Ozone therapy can be used as a therapeutic approach to regulate the immune system responses and inflammation in MS.

Red Light Therapy
for Multiple sclerosis (MS)

New research on Multiple Sclerosis treatment suggests that Red Light Therapy has the potential to decrease the severity of the disease.

Infrared Sauna therapy
for Multiple sclerosis (MS)

Infrared sauna therapy can help treat multiple sclerosis (MS) by decreasing stress, reducing chronic pain, and helping you sweat out the toxins that build up

Pressotherapy
for Multiple sclerosis (MS)

A new study has shown that (pressotherapy) lymphatic vessels drain waste products and allow immune cells to move through the system. Blocking the lymphatic vessels delayed and lessened disease in a laboratory model of MS.

Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy outside the chamber

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy
for Multiple Sclerosis (MS)

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) has been reluctant to gain acceptance as an alternative therapy for multiple sclerosis (MS) in the medical profession. However, scientific data suggests that oxygen therapy can help MS patients, and doctors throughout the world are increasingly suggesting it as part of their patient’s treatment plans.

Cryotherapy

Cryotherapy
for Multiple sclerosis (MS)

Cryotherapy has many benefits that make it an attractive addition to treatment for MS and other health conditions.  Its advantages include:

  • Inflammation reduction
  • Relieving nerve irritation and pain relief
  • Improving mood
  • Reducing fatigue

Ozone Therapy

Ozone therapy
for Multiple sclerosis (MS)

Ozone therapy can be used as a therapeutic approach to regulate the immune system responses and inflammation in MS.

Red Light Therapy

Red Light Therapy
for Multiple sclerosis (MS)

New research on Multiple Sclerosis treatment suggests that Red Light Therapy has the potential to decrease the severity of the disease.

Infrared Sauna Therapy Mobile

Infrared Sauna therapy
for Multiple sclerosis (MS)

Infrared sauna therapy can help treat multiple sclerosis (MS) by decreasing stress, reducing chronic pain, and helping you sweat out the toxins that build up

Pressotherapy Therapy

Pressotherapy
for Multiple sclerosis (MS)

A new study has shown that (pressotherapy) lymphatic vessels drain waste products and allow immune cells to move through the system. Blocking the lymphatic vessels delayed and lessened disease in a laboratory model of MS.

Multiple sclerosis
Types

Multiple Sclerosis Types Mobile

Multiple sclerosis types

Types of MS include:

Clinically isolated syndrome (CIS)

A pre-MS disease characterised by a single bout of symptoms lasting at least 24 hours is known as CIS. Demyelination of the CNS is the cause of these symptoms.

Although this experience is typical of MS, it isn’t enough to diagnose the disease.

You’re more likely to be diagnosed with RRMS if you have more than one lesion or a positive oligoclonal band (OCB) in your spinal fluid during a spinal tap.

You’re less likely to be diagnosed with MS if these lesions aren’t present or if your spinal fluid doesn’t reveal OCBs.

Relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS)

Clear relapses of disease activity are followed by remissions in relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS). Symptoms are minor or nonexistent during remission periods, and disease progression is modest to moderate.

According to the National Multiple Sclerosis Society, RRMS is the most frequent form of MS at the time of start, accounting for around 85 percent of all cases.

Primary progressive MS (PPMS)

If you have primary progressive MS (PPMS), your neurological function will deteriorate over time as your symptoms worsen.

Short periods of stability can, however, occur. When there are new or enhancing brain lesions, the terms “active” and “not active” are occasionally employed to indicate disease activity.

Secondary progressive MS (SPMS)

When RRMS progresses into progressive MS, it is known as secondary progressive MS (SPMS). In addition to an impairment or a steady decrease of function, you may still experience notable relapses.

The bottom line

It’s possible that your MS will develop and evolve over time, such as from RRMS to SPMS.

You can only have one type of MS at a time, but determining when you start to progress to a progressive form can be tricky.

What is the life
expectancy for people
with Multiple sclerosis?

Multiple Sclerosis Life Expectancy Mobile

What is the life expectancy for people with Multiple sclerosis?

It’s nearly hard to know how MS will progress in a specific person. According to the National MS Society, people with MS are living longer.

According to the National Multiple Sclerosis Society, between 10% to 15% of people with MS experience only a few attacks and have little disability 10 years following diagnosis. It’s safe to assume they’re not receiving therapy or taking injectable drugs. This is referred to as benign MS.

MS type

Progressive MS progresses more quickly than RRMS. RRMS patients can go into remission for years at a time. After five years, the absence of disability is usually a strong predictor of the future.

Sex

According to a 2018 scientific study of data, men’s condition is more severe and debilitating.

The bottom line

The severity of your symptoms and how well you respond to treatment will determine your MS quality of life. Despite the fact that this unpredictable disease might change its path at any time, it is rarely fatal.

The majority of persons with MS do not become seriously handicapped and live full lives.

What are the
warning signs of
Multiple sclerosis?

Early signs of MS mobile

What are the warning signs of Multiple sclerosis?

MS can strike suddenly, or the symptoms can be so minor that they are easily overlooked. The following are three of the most common early MS symptoms:

  • Numbness and tingling in the arms, legs, or on one side of the face. These feelings are similar to the pins-and-needles sensation that occurs when your foot falls asleep. They do not, however, have a cause.
  • Legs that are feeble and have an uneven balance. While walking or engaging in another form of physical activity, you may find yourself readily tripping.
  • Double vision, fuzzy vision in one eye, or partial vision loss. These symptoms may be a precursor to MS. There’s a chance you’ll get eye pain as well.

It’s not unusual for these early symptoms to disappear only to reappear later. You could go weeks, months, or even years without experiencing a flare-up.

There are numerous causes for these symptoms. Even if you exhibit these symptoms, you do not definitely have MS.

RRMS affects more women than men, whereas PPMS affects both men and women equally. Most doctors feel that MS is more aggressive in men and that recovery from relapses is frequently incomplete.

Living with
Multiple sclerosis?

Living with MS mobile

Living with Multiple sclerosis?

The majority of persons with MS are able to control their symptoms and operate well.

Medications

If you have MS, you’ll need to consult a specialist who specialises in MS treatment.

You must follow the prescribed schedule if you use one of the DMTs. Other medications may be prescribed by your doctor to treat specific symptoms.

Diet and exercise

Even if you have a disability, regular exercise is vital for your physical and emotional health.

Swimming or exercising in a pool can help if physical movement is difficult. Some yoga classes are specifically developed for people who have MS.

A well-balanced diet high in minerals and fibre and low in empty calories will help you manage your overall health.

The following foods should make up the majority of your diet:

  • A variety of fruits and vegetables
  • Lean sources of protein, such as fish and skinless poultry
  • Whole grains and other sources of fiber
  • Nuts
  • Beans & legumes
  • Low-fat dairy products
  • Adequate amounts of water and other fluids

Your entire health will improve if you eat a healthier diet. You’ll not only feel better now, but you’ll be building the groundwork for a healthier future as well.

You should strive to restrict or stay away from:

  • Saturated fat
  • Trans fat
  • Red meats
  • Foods and beverages high in sugar
  • Foods high in sodium
  • Highly processed foods

Ask your doctor if you should follow a particular diet or take any dietary supplements if you have any other medical conditions.

It’s beneficial to understand how to read food labels correctly. Foods that are high in calories but lacking in nutrients will not make you feel better or help you maintain a healthy weight.

Multiple Sclerosis
Risk Factors

Multiple sclerosis Risk Factors Mobile

Multiple Sclerosis Risk Factors

MS’s actual cause has yet to be discovered. There are, however, a number of risk factors for getting MS.

These are some of the risk factors:

  • Being a close relative with an MS sufferer
  • Obesity
  • Particular infections
  • Smoking
  • Certain autoimmune disorders, like type 1 diabetes and rheumatoid arthritis

What are the complications of MS?

MS lesions can form anywhere in your CNS and have a number of negative effects.

Mobility issues

Some of the problems MS causes may become more pronounced as you become older.

Falling might raise your risk of bone fractures if you have mobility limitations. Other medical issues, such as arthritis and osteoporosis, can make things more difficult.

Other concerns

Fatigue is one of the most frequent MS symptoms, however, it’s not uncommon for persons with MS to also experience:

  • Depression
  • Anxiety
  • Some form of cognitive impairment

The bottom line

Mobility limitations can result in a lack of physical exercise, which can contribute to a variety of health conditions. Sexual function may be affected by fatigue and movement difficulties.

Multiple Sclerosis
Statistics

Multiple Sclerosis Statistics Mobile

Multiple Sclerosis Statistics

According to MS Society UK, it is estimated there are over 130,000 people diagnosed with MS in the UK, and that nearly 7,000 people are newly diagnosed each year. This equates to around one in every 500 people in the UK having MS.

You should also be aware of the following:

MS is the most common neurological disease that leaves young adults disabled all over the world.

The majority of patients diagnosed with RRMS are between the ages of 20 and 50.

Women are two to three times as likely as males to have RRMS. PPMS rates are nearly equal in men and women.

MS rates are lower in areas closer to the equator. This could be due to a lack of sunshine and vitamin D. People who move to a new location before the age of 15 are more likely to have MS risk factors connected with the new area than those who move after the age of 15. Canadians have the highest MS prevalence rate in the world.

 

Multiple Sclerosis
Summary

Multiple Sclerosis Summary

Multiple Sclerosis Summary

MS is a chronic illness that lasts a lifetime. You’ll face one-of-a-kind difficulties that will evolve with time.

You should concentrate on talking to your doctor about your worries, learning everything you can about MS, and figuring out what helps you feel your best.

Many people with MS join in-person or online support groups to share their struggles and coping skills.

Multiple Sclerosis (MS) Treatment & Therapy
Scientific Studies

In this section, you will find an array of Multiple Sclerosis (MS) Treatment & Therapy scientific case studies.
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy (HBOT)
Michael Bennett, Robert Heard
NCBI – April 2010 – PMID: 20415839

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Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy (HBOT)
Boguslav H. Fischer, M.D., Morton Marks, M.D., and Theobald Reich, M.D.
NEJM – January 1983 – DOI: 10.1056/NEJM198301273080402

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Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy (HBOT)
Lucy Moore, Paul Eggleton, Gary Smerdon, Jia Newcombe, Janet E.Holley, Nicholas J.Gutowskiad, Miranda Smallwood
August 2020 – ScienceDirect – doi.org/10.1016/j.msard.2020.102084

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Cryotherapy
E Miller, J Kostka, T Włodarczyk, B Dugué
NCBI – December 2016 – PMID: 26778452

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Cryotherapy
Bartomiej Ptaszek, Aneta Telegów, Justyna Adamiak, Jacek Godzik, Szymon Podsiado, Dawid Mucha, Jakub Marchewka,Tomasz Halski and Dariusz Mucha
MDPI – May 2021 – doi.org/10.3390/jcm10132833

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Ozone Therapy
Safa Tahmasebi, Maytham T Qasim, Maria V Krivenkova, Angelina O Zekiy, Lakshmi Thangavelu, Surendar Aravindhan, Morteza Izadi, Farhad Jadidi-Niaragh, Mahnaz Ghaebi, Saeed Aslani, Leili Aghebat-Maleki, Majid Ahmadi, Leila Roshangar
NCIB – July 2021 – PMID: 33724614

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Ozone Therapy
Javad Ameli, Abdolali Banki, Fariborz Khorvash, Vincenzo Simonetti, Nematollah Jonaidi Jafari, and Morteza Izadi
NCIB – April 2019 – PMID: 31580307

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Red Light Therapy
Farrah J Mateen, Natalie C Manalo, Sara J Grundy, Melissa A Houghton, Gladia C Hotan, Hans Erickson, Aleksandar Videnovic
NCIB – September 2017 – PMID: 28885372

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Red Light Therapy
Farrah J Mateen, Natalie C Manalo, Sara J Grundy, Melissa A Houghton, Gladia C Hotan, Hans Erickson, Aleksandar Videnovic
NCIB – September 2017 – PMID: 28885372

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Infrared Sauna Therapy
Joy Hussain and Marc Cohen
NCBI – April 2018 – PMID: 29849692

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Infrared Sauna Therapy
Dr. Kwasi Donyina
Clinical Trials – June 2010 – NCT00674934

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Pressotherapy
Amy Frost-Hunt
NCBI – December 2020 – PMID: 33282034

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