Bad breath is a frequent issue that affects people of all ages. Bad breath (halitosis) is considered to affect one out of every four people on a regular basis. Generally, improving your dental hygiene is enough to cure bad breath and prevent it from recurring (see ‘preventing bad breath’).
A Baker’s cyst is a fluid-filled growth that forms behind the knee. It’s caused by swollen and inflammatory tissue beneath the knee joint. They’re more common in women and those over the age of 40. If you have the symptoms and they don’t go away, see a doctor.
Balanitis is a skin irritation that affects both men and boys on the head of the penis. Balanitis is normally not serious, but if you or your child thinks you or your kid has it, you should see a doctor.
Penis problems | Tight foreskin (phimosis and Paraphimosis)
Swelling | Pain | Redness | Temperature
A Bartholin’s cyst is a tiny fluid-filled sac that appears on either side of the vaginal entrance in the skin. It’s a soft, harmless bump that normally doesn’t create any issues. If you notice a bump there, see your doctor receive a diagnosis and rule out more serious problems.
Incontinence | Leaking of urine
Young children are prone to bedwetting. As youngsters grow older, it becomes less common. Although most children respond well to treatment, they may still wet the bed on occasion.
Behçet’s syndrome, often known as Behçet’s disease, is an uncommon and poorly understood disorder. Inflammation of the blood vessels and tissues occurs as a result. Because the symptoms of Behçet’s illness are so varied and generic, it can be difficult to identify (they can be shared with a number of other conditions).
Dropped face | Drooling | Loss of taste | Headache
Bell’s palsy is a condition in which the muscles on one side of the face become temporarily weak or paralysed. It’s one of the most common causes of facial paralysis. A stroke or a transient ischemic attack are two further possibilities. If you or someone you’re with experiences abrupt facial paralysis, dial 999 for an ambulance.
A benign brain tumour is a benign (non-cancerous) growth in the brain that does not infiltrate or extend to the spinal cord. Brain tumours that aren’t malignant tend to stay put. If you experience signs of a brain tumour, visit your doctor.
Delayed peeing | Peeing more | Slow pee | Need to pee
An enlarged prostate is known as benign prostate enlargement (BPE). It’s a medical disorder that affects the way you pass urine (pee). BPE is very common in men over the age of 50. It’s not cancer, and it normally doesn’t pose a major health risk.
Bile duct cancer
Jaundice | Itch | Pale Poo | Dark Urine
Cholangiocarcinoma is a cancer of the bile ducts (small tubes that connect the liver, gall bladder, and small intestine). It’s a rare type of cancer that mostly affects people over the age of 65. If you have bile duct cancer symptoms, see a doctor.
Binge eating disorder is characterised by eating huge amounts of food at once until you feel uncomfortably full, followed by feelings of regret or guilt. Binge eating disorder can affect men and women of any age, but it is most common in late adolescence and early adulthood.
Bipolar disease, sometimes called manic depression, is a mental illness that affects your moods. Your moods can swing from one extreme to the other; for example, you may experience periods of intense melancholy as well as periods of overwhelming happiness (mania).
Mental health conditions
Birthmarks are coloured marks on the skin that are visible. They are frequently present at birth or develop shortly after.
Bruising | Swelling
A black eye is bruising and swelling around the eye that is typically produced by a blow to the area, such as a punch or a fall. Within two to three weeks, it should improve.
Blood in urine | Peeing more | Need to pee | Pain
Bladder cancer occurs when a tumour (a development of abnormal malignant tissue) forms in the bladder lining. Blood in the urine is the most prevalent symptom of bladder cancer. If you see blood in your urine, see your doctor right away so the cause can be determined.
Blood in urine | Tummy ache | Pain when peeing | Peeing more
Bladder stones are hard mineral lumps that grow in the bladder when it does not empty entirely of urine (pee). If you have persistent abdominal pain, need to pee more frequently, or have blood in your urine, consult a doctor.
Bleeding between periods
Bleeding between periods
Bleeding between periods can be caused by a variety of factors. Some of them may not be cause for alarm, but if you’re concerned, seek medical advice.
Blisters are tiny pockets of fluid that form when the upper layers of the skin are injured. Blisters can appear everywhere on the body, but the hands and feet are the most prevalent.
Blocked nose | Breathing difficulties
A blocked nose, also known as nasal congestion, is characterised by a stuffy feeling in the nose caused by mucus or another impediment. This could be caused by a common cold, sinusitis, or nasal polyps, among other things.
A blood cell issue occurs when your red blood cells, white blood cells, or the smaller circulating cells known as platelets, which are essential for clot formation, are affected. The bone marrow, which is the soft substance inside your bones, produces all three cell types.
Red blood cell disorders | White blood cell disorders | Platelet disorders | Plasma cell disorders
Blood clot blocking an artery (arterial thrombosis)
Blood vessels are known as arteries. They are responsible for transporting blood from the heart to the rest of the body as well as the heart muscle. A blood clot obstructing an artery is known as arterial thrombosis in medical terms. This can be extremely dangerous since it prevents blood from reaching vital organs.
Blood clot in a vein (venous thrombosis) | Embolism | Pulmonary embolism
Blood clot in a vein (venous thrombosis)
A blood clot in a vein is a dangerous medical illness with a high risk of death. A blood clot in a deep vein in the body, generally in the leg, is known as a deep vein thrombosis (DVT). This page contains information on the causes of blood clots as well as methods for preventing them.
When you ejaculate, finding blood in your semen is unusual. Please don’t be concerned; it’s generally only temporary, and the cause is rarely serious. The sperm may be blood-stained, brownish-red in colour, or pink in colour. Consult a doctor to figure out what’s causing it.
Blood in urine (haematuria)
Blood in urine
The most prevalent causes of blood in the urine (pee) are discussed on this page. This guide is not intended to be used for self-diagnosis. It’s critical to see a doctor and get the correct diagnosis.
Blue skin and lips (cyanosis)
Blue lips and tongue
Low blood oxygen levels or poor circulation are the most common causes of blue skin and lips. It could indicate a significant concern. If you detect an adult or child suddenly going blue, dial 999 or go to the nearest emergency room right once.
Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), also known as body dysmorphia, is a mental health disease in which a person obsesses over defects in their appearance. Others are typically blind to these shortcomings. If you suspect you have BDD, you should see a doctor (see getting help section).
Mental health conditions
Body odour (bromhidrosis)
The unpleasant odour produced by microorganisms on the skin breaking down the acids in your sweat is known as body odour. It is available to everybody who has reached puberty. Self-care can help you avoid it. If your body smell causes you discomfort or changes substantially, you should consult a doctor.
Boils and carbuncles are red, painful lumps that appear just beneath the skin’s surface. A bacterial infection is generally to blame.
Symptoms Include: Pain | Bone pain | Lump | Swelling
Bone cancer is a rare cancer that starts in the bones. This is distinct from bone cancer, which develops elsewhere in the body and then travels to the bones (not covered on this page). If you or your kid has chronic, severe, or worsening bone pain, see a doctor.
Bone cysts are fluid-filled pores in the bones that develop throughout time. Children and teenagers are the ones that are most affected. They’re normally not dangerous, but surgery may be required in some cases.
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a mood and interpersonal interaction problem. It is the most well-known personality condition. In general, someone with a personality disorder thinks, perceives, feels, and interacts with people differently from the average individual.
Botulism is an uncommon and potentially fatal disease caused by toxins that assault the neurological system. With treatment, the majority of people recover completely. If the paralysis is not treated soon, it can extend to the muscles that control respiration. It has the potential to be fatal. If you get any paralysis symptoms, go to the nearest emergency room.
Blood | Change in bowel habit | Weight loss | Tummy ache
The term “bowel cancer” refers to cancer that starts in the large intestine. In the UK, bowel cancer is one of the most frequent cancers. It’s critical to recognise the signs and symptoms of bowel cancer and, if you’re eligible, to participate in a screening programme.
Bowel incontinence refers to the inability to regulate one’s bowel motions. This can result in stools being passed inadvertently (poo). If you suffer from bowel incontinence, see your doctor. It’s distressing and difficult to deal with, but therapy is effective, and cures are frequently attainable.
Small growths on the inner lining of the large intestine (colon) or rectum are known as bowel polyps. Polyps in the bowel are fairly prevalent. Men are slightly more likely than women to have them, and people over the age of 60 are the most likely to develop them.
Bowen’s disease is a type of skin cancer that develops early and is easily treated. A red, scaly patch on the skin is the primary symptom. If you have a chronic red, scaly area of skin and don’t know what’s causing it, see a doctor. It’s critical to acquire a correct diagnosis.
Headache | Sensory confusion | Temperature | Seizures
A brain abscess is a swelling in the brain that is filled with pus. A brain abscess is a life-threatening condition, despite the minimal probability of having one. As soon as possible, it should be detected and treated.
An aneurysm is a blood vessel bulging. A weakening in the blood vessel wall, generally where it branches, causes it. A brain aneurysm is discussed on this page. Unless it bursts (ruptures), a brain aneurysm rarely causes any symptoms.
Brain stem death
Passed out | Pause in breathing
When the brain stem (a portion of the brain) stops working, it is called brain stem death. Without a machine (ventilator), the person will never be able to be awake or breathe if the brain stem ceases operating. When the brain stem stops operating, a person is declared dead.
A brain tumour is the development of cells in the brain that multiply in an unregulated and unnatural manner. If you have any of the symptoms listed, especially if you have a severe and persistent headache, see a doctor. Even if you don’t have a brain tumour, these symptoms should be investigated.
Lump | Pain | Redness | Temperature
A breast abscess is a painful pus-filled accumulation in the breast. A bacterial infection causes most abscesses to form just beneath the skin. Mastitis can lead to breast abscesses, which are typical complications. Mastitis is a disorder that causes pain and swelling (inflammation) in the breasts.
Breast cancer is a disease that can affect both men and women. In the United Kingdom, it is nearly 100 times less prevalent in men than in women. It mainly affects men over the age of 60, however, it can also affect younger men on rare occasions. If you have any of the symptoms listed, you should see a doctor.
Breast cancer is the second most frequent malignancy in women in the United Kingdom. If it’s caught early enough, there’s a decent chance of recovery. It’s critical for women to check their breasts for changes on a regular basis and to have any changes checked by a doctor.
Breast lumps are frequent and can be caused by a variety of factors. Although the majority of lumps aren’t cancerous, any odd changes in the breasts should be evaluated by a doctor as soon as possible. Breast cancer can affect men as well, however, it is considerably less common in men than in women.
Broken bones can occur as a result of an accident, such as a fall or being struck by an object. A bone can be broken by anyone. Bone fractures are more common in the elderly and individuals with osteoporosis. If you have a broken bone, seek medical attention right away. If the injury is serious, dial 999 for an ambulance.
When a tooth is knocked out, it must be treated right away. If it’s an adult tooth, try to put it back in place and see a dentist right away. Do not attempt to replace a knocked-out baby tooth; instead, take your child to the dentist right away.
Bronchiectasis is a long-term disorder in which the lungs’ airways become chronically abnormally enlarged and their walls thickened. Excess mucus builds up, as a result, making the lungs more susceptible to infection.
Symptoms Include: Cough | Runny nose | Temperature | Wheeze
Bronchiolitis is a viral infection of the lower respiratory tract that affects newborns and young children under the age of two. Bronchitis is usually not harmful, although it can occasionally be accompanied by a more serious illness, such as pneumonia. See the ‘When to Seek Medical Help’ section for more information.
Symptoms Include: Cough | Phlegm | Runny nose | Temperature
Bronchitis is an infection that causes the lungs’ major airways (bronchi) to become irritated and inflamed. Bronchitis can be caused by a virus or bacterium, with viral bronchitis being far more prevalent. This article contains information about acute bronchitis.
Brucellosis is a bacteria that can be spread through unpasteurized milk and cheese. Brucellosis symptoms are similar to those of the flu (see below). In the UK, it’s quite rare. If you have brucellosis symptoms, you should see a doctor.
A small, red lump on the skin is often the result of an insect bite or sting, and it can be uncomfortable and itchy. Many bites may heal in a matter of hours or days and can be handled safely at home. If you were not present when you were bitten or stung, it can be difficult to determine what bit or stung you.
Bulimia is an eating disorder as well as a mental health issue. Bulimia can affect men and women of any age, although it is most frequent in young women and usually begins in their mid to late teens. If you suspect you have bulimia, consult your doctor as soon as possible.
Itching, redness, and blisters are all symptoms of bullous pemphigoid, an uncommon skin disorder. It may linger for a few years and cause major issues in some cases, but treatment can assist. If you suspect you have the illness, see your doctor (see section below for symptoms of bullous pemphigoid).
A bunion is a bone malformation at the base of the big toe’s joint. A bunion can affect anyone. Women are more likely to have them than men. If you have a bunion, consult your podiatrist or doctor because if you don’t address it, the symptoms can get worse.
Heat damages the skin, resulting in burns and scalds. Dry heat, such as that produced by an iron or a fire, causes a burn. Something moist, such as hot water or steam, causes a scald. Chemicals and electricity can also cause burns.