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Health conditions A-Z

Conditions S

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63 Conditions S

Salivary gland stones

Symptoms Include:
Pain | Swelling

 

Salivary gland stones are tiny stones that occur in your mouth’s salivary glands. They have the potential to obstruct your salivary flow. They’re usually not dangerous, and you might be able to get rid of them yourself.

Sarcoidosis

Symptoms Include:
Lump | Redness | Shortness of breath | Cough

 

Sarcoidosis is an uncommon disease in which small patches of red, swollen tissue (granulomas) appear in the body’s organs, most commonly the lungs and skin. It can affect persons of all ages, although it is most common in people between the ages of 20 and 40. It’s more prevalent in women and people of African heritage are more likely to have it.

Scabies

Symptoms Include:
Rash  | Itch

 

Scabies is a skin disorder brought on by microscopic mites burrowing into the skin. It is contagious and can be passed from one person to another. If you suspect you have scabies, see a doctor. It’s normally not a life-threatening condition, but it does need to be addressed.

Scarlet fever

Symptoms Include:
Rash | Sore throat | Headache | Temperature

 

Scarlet fever is a bacterial infection that affects primarily youngsters. The rash is a characteristic pink-red colour.

Scars

Symptoms Include:
Skin lesions

 

After a wound or injury has healed, a scar is a mark left on the skin. Scars are an unavoidable consequence of the healing process. The majority will fade and grow paler with time, but they will never totally vanish.

Sciatica

Symptoms Include:
Pain

 

Sciatica causes pain, numbness, tingling, and weakness in the lower back, buttocks, legs, and feet and can result from irritation of the nerve that travels from the lower back to the feet.

Schistosomiasis

Symptoms Include:
Rash | Temperature | Cough | Diarrhoea

 

Schistosomiasis, or bilharzia, is a parasitic infection. A parasitic worm that dwells in fresh water in subtropical and tropical climates causes it. If you think you may have been exposed to parasites while travelling or if you have any symptoms, visit a doctor (see symptoms section ).

Schizophrenia

Symptoms Include:
Delusions | Hallucinations | Abnormal thoughts | Upsetting thoughts

 

Schizophrenia is a serious long-term mental illness. It alters the way a person thinks and acts. If you think you could be suffering from schizophrenia, consult your doctor as soon as possible. If you have concerns about someone you know, you should call their primary care physician.

 

Related Conditions:
Mental health conditions

Scleroderma

Symptoms Include:
Skin lesions | Rash | Sclerodactyly (wax-like tight skin on swollen fingers) | Shortness of breath

 

Scleroderma is a rare skin condition that causes hardening and thickening of the skin, as well as difficulties with internal organs and blood vessels.

Scurvy

Symptoms Include:
Tiredness | Joint pain | Skin discolouration | Swollen gums | Fatigue

 

Scurvy (severe vitamin C deficiency) is uncommon since most people consume enough vitamin C. It’s usually simple to deal with.

 

Related Conditions:
Vitamin C

Seasonal affective disorder (SAD)

Symptoms Include:
Low mood | Tiredness | Insomnia | Poor appetite | Fatigue

 

Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is a type of depression that occurs in a predictable pattern throughout the year. Because the symptoms are more obvious and tend to be more severe during the winter, it’s sometimes referred to as winter depression. If you’re suffering from SAD and are having trouble coping, see your doctor.

 

Related Conditions:
Mental health conditions

Self-harm

 

When someone purposefully harms or injures their own body, this is known as self-harm. It’s frequently a coping or expression mechanism for dealing with or expressing severe emotional discomfort.

Sepsis

Symptoms Include:
Temperature | Shivering | Fast heartbeat | Shortness of breath

 

Sepsis is a potentially fatal condition that is brought on by an infection or an injury. It’s also known as septicaemia or blood poisoning.

Septic arthritis

Symptoms Include:
Pain | Swelling | Redness | Inflamed

 

A bacterial infection causes septic arthritis, which is the inflammation of a joint. Any joint can be affected, but knees and hips are the most frequent. It’s possible that more than one joint is impacted. After treatment, the majority of people recover. It can cause severe joint damage and is potentially life-threatening if not treated.

 

Related Conditions:
Joint pain

Septic shock

Symptoms Include:
Temperature | Shivering | Fast heartbeat | Shortness of breath

 

Septic shock is a potentially fatal condition that occurs when your blood pressure falls dangerously low as a result of an infection. Septic shock is a life-threatening condition. If you suspect you or someone in your care is suffering from septic shock, call 999 and request an ambulance.

Severe head injury

Symptoms Include:
Passed out | Drowsy | Pain | Double vision

 

Severe head injuries necessitate prompt medical attention since significant brain damage is a possibility. If you’re with someone who has suffered a head injury and is experiencing any of the symptoms listed, call 999 immediately to request an ambulance.

 

Related Conditions:
Paralysis | Traumatic brain injury

Shin splints

Symptoms Include:
Pain

 

Shin splints are a pain in the shins, or front of the lower legs, that is usually induced by exercise. They are usually treatable at home and should improve in a matter of weeks. If your discomfort persists despite the above therapies, see a doctor.

Shingles

Symptoms Include:
Rash | Pain | Temperature | Muscle ache | Fatigue

 

Shingles are a condition in which a nerve and the skin around it become infected. The varicella-zoster virus, which also causes chickenpox is to blame. Shingles can strike at any age, but the likelihood and severity of shingles rise as you get older.

 

Related Conditions:
Chest pain

Short-sightedness (myopia)

Short-sightedness, often known as myopia, is an eye condition in which distant objects appear fuzzy but close ones are plainly visible. If you suspect you or your child may be short-sighted, schedule an eye exam with a local optician.

 

Related Conditions:
Eye problems

Shortness of breath

Symptoms Include:
Shortness of breath

 

When you’ve overexerted yourself, it’s natural to feel out of breath. When breathlessness strikes abruptly and unexpectedly, however, it’s frequently a symptom of a medical problem. If you suffer sudden shortness of breath, call your doctor or the GP out-of-hours service right away.

Shoulder pain

Symptoms Include:
Pain

 

You can typically do things on your own to assist relieve shoulder pain. If your shoulder pain does not improve after two weeks, you should consult your doctor.

Shoulder & Neck Pain

Symptoms Include:
Pain

 

Strains and sprains from overexertion or poor posture are the most common causes of neck and shoulder pain. This pain may go away on its own at times. Pain can also be relieved by stretching and strengthening activities. A fracture in the bones of your shoulder can cause neck and shoulder pain.

Sickle cell disease (sickle cell anaemia)

Symptoms Include:
Pain | Shortness of breath | Can’t fight infections | Tiredness | Fatigue

 

Sickle cell disease is a term used to describe a range of inherited red blood cell disorders. Sickle cell anaemia is the most dangerous form. Sickle cell disease is a serious and life-long disease, although long-term treatment can help manage many of the issues it causes.

Silicosis

Symptoms Include:
Cough | Shortness of breath | Tiredness | Fatigue

 

Silicosis is a chronic lung illness caused by inhaling large volumes of crystalline silica dust over a lengthy period of time. If you think you could have silicosis, make an appointment with a doctor (see symptoms section).

Sinusitis

Symptoms Include:
Pain | Blocked nose | Mucus | Discharge

 

Sinusitis is the inflammation (swelling) of the sinus lining. It’s usually caused by a virus, and it normally goes away in two or three weeks. The sinuses are little chambers behind your cheeks and forehead that are filled with air.

 

Related Conditions:
Headaches | Common cold | Allergic rhinitis

Sjögren’s syndrome

Symptoms Include:
Dry eyes | Dry mouth | Dry skin | Tiredness

 

Sjögren’s syndrome (pronounced Show- grins) affects bodily parts that produce fluids such as tears and spit (saliva). It usually begins between the ages of 40 and 60, and it affects far more women than males. It’s a long-term illness that can have an impact on your everyday life, but there are therapies available to assist alleviate symptoms.

Skin cancer (melanoma)

Symptoms Include:
Skin lesions | Change in shape | Change in size | Blood

 

Melanoma is a kind of skin cancer that has the potential to spread to other organs. If you observe changes in a mole, freckle, or patch of skin, see a doctor as soon as possible, especially if the changes occur over a period of weeks or months.

 

Related Conditions:
Cancer | Sunburn

Skin rashes in babies

Symptoms Include:
Rash

 

Rashes can appear as early as the first few days of a baby’s life. Speak to your midwife, health visitor, or GP if your infant has a rash but no other symptoms of illness. Call a GP or a GP out-of-hours service if your baby appears to be unwell.

Skin rashes in children

Symptoms Include:
Rash

 

Rashes in children are quite prevalent. The majority of rashes are harmless and go away on their own. If your child develops a rash and appears unwell, or if you’re concerned, contact a doctor or phone the GP out-of-hours service.

Skin tags

Symptoms Include:
Skin lesions | Lump

 

Skin tags are tiny, soft, skin-coloured growths that resemble warts and hang from the skin. Skin tags are normally painless and do not cause irritation.

Slapped cheek syndrome

Symptoms Include:
Rash | Temperature | Runny nose | Sore throat

 

Slapped cheek syndrome (fifth sickness) is a frequent ailment in youngsters that usually goes away after three weeks.  It is rare in adults, but it can be more serious.

Sleep paralysis

Symptoms Include:
Unable to move | Anxiety | Shortness of breath

 

When you wake up or fall asleep, you may have sleep paralysis, which is a temporary incapacity to move or talk. It’s not dangerous and should go away on its own, but it can be terrifying. It can impact anyone, but young adults are the most affected. If you get sleep paralysis on a frequent basis, see a doctor.

 

Related Conditions:
Paralysis

Slipped disc

Symptoms Include:
Back pain | Limb pain | Stiff neck | Numbness

 

When a soft cushion of tissue between the bones in your spine pulls out, it’s called a slipped disc. If it presses on nerves, it hurts. Rest, light exercise and medicines usually help it get better gradually.

Smelling things that aren’t there (phantosmia)

Symptoms Include:
Imaginary smell

 

Phantomtosmia is the sensation of smelling something that isn’t there. It can be unpleasant and alter the flavour of foods. However, it is usually not dangerous and will go away on its own after a few weeks or months. If the unusual odour persists after a few weeks, see a doctor.

Smelly urine

Symptoms Include:
Smelly urine

 

Urine (pee) from a healthy person should be clear and straw-coloured, with a mild odour. Seeing a doctor for stinky urine isn’t essential unless you’re concerned – for example, if you’re experiencing additional symptoms.

Snoring

Symptoms Include:
Snoring

 

Snoring is a relatively common occurrence that is typically caused by nothing significant. Simple lifestyle modifications, as shown, can help you stop or lessen snoring.

 

Related Conditions:
Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA)

Social anxiety (social phobia)

Symptoms Include:
Anxiety | Avoidance | Agitated

 

A long-term and extreme fear of social situations is known as social anxiety disorder or social phobia. It’s a typical condition that usually starts in adolescence. Some people’s symptoms improve as they get older, but many people’s symptoms do not go away on their own.

 

Related Conditions:
Mental health conditions

Soft tissue sarcomas

Symptoms Include:
Lump | Pain

 

Soft tissue sarcomas are a type of cancer that affects the soft tissues of the body. Tissues that link, support, and surround other body structures and organs are affected. If you have a suspicious bump, see a doctor. Despite the fact that your symptoms are considerably more likely to be caused by a non-cancerous ailment, it’s crucial to have them checked out.

 

Related Conditions:
Cancer

Sore or dry lips

Symptoms Include:
Cracked lips | Pain

 

When your lips are exposed to the sun, wind, or cold air, they can get chapped and dry. A lip balm with petroleum or beeswax acts as a barrier and helps to keep moisture in.

Sore or painful tongue

Symptoms Include:
Pain

 

Something evident and noticeable frequently causes a sore or uncomfortable tongue. A few less obvious issues may need to be addressed. If you experience persistent pain and haven’t accidentally bitten or burned your tongue, see a doctor or dentist.

 

Related Conditions:
Dental problems

Sore throat

Symptoms Include:
Sore throat

 

Sore throats are fairly frequent, and they are usually not a cause for concern. They usually improve within a week. The majority of them are caused by simple illnesses like colds or flu, which may be treated at home.

Spina bifida

Symptoms Include:
Muscle weakness | Unable to move | Incontinence | Leaking of urine

 

When a baby’s spine and spinal cord do not develop normally in the womb, a gap in the spine develops. Women who have a family history of spina bifida or partners who have a family history are more likely to have a child with the condition.

 

Related Conditions:
Paralysis

Spinal muscular atrophy

Symptoms Include:
Muscle weakness | Difficulty walking | Difficulty swallowing | Shortness of breath

 

SMA (spinal muscular atrophy) is a hereditary disorder that causes muscle weakness and movement issues. Although it is a serious disorder that worsens over time, there are therapies available to assist in managing the symptoms.

Spleen problems and spleen removal

Symptoms Include:
Pain | Can’t fight infections | Blood

 

Some people are born without a spleen, while others require surgery to remove it due to sickness or damage. The spleen is a small organ around the size of a fist. It’s near your stomach and behind your left ribs on the top left side of your abdomen.

Spondylolisthesis

Symptoms Include:
Pain | Swelling | Bruising | Reduced movement

 

(a slipped spinal bone) — this can cause lower back discomfort and stiffness, as well as numbness and tingling sensations.

 

Related Conditions:
Back pain

Sports injuries

Symptoms Include:
Pain | Swelling | Bruising | Reduced movement

 

Although the advantages of sports and exercise much exceed the hazards, accidents can occur from time to time.

 

Related Conditions:
Sprains and strains

Sprains and strains

Symptoms Include:
Pain | Swelling | Bruising | Reduced movement

 

Sprains and strains of the muscles and ligaments are common injuries. They can affect anyone, but they are more common in athletes. The majority of illnesses can be treated at home without the need to see a doctor.

Squint

Symptoms Include:
Squint | Double vision | Reduced eyesight

 

A squint (strabismus) is a condition in which the eyes point in opposite directions. It can affect anyone at any age, but it is more common in children under the age of five. While one eye is turned in, out, up, or down, the other is seeing ahead. If your child has a squint, seek medical help.

Staph infection

 

Staph infections are caused by the staphylococcus bacteria. They are most commonly found on the skin. They can go gone on their own, but they frequently require antibiotic treatment.

Sties

Symptoms Include:
Lump | Redness | Pain

 

On the inside or outside of the eyelid, a stye is a tiny, painful bump (cyst). A bacterial infection is the most common cause of styes. They normally only affect one eye at a time. It’s possible to have styes in both eyes or many styes in the same eye.

 

Related Conditions:
Eyelid problems | Blepharitis

Stillbirth

 

When a baby is born dead after 24 weeks of pregnancy, it is known as a stillbirth. A miscarriage occurs when the baby dies before reaching the age of 24 weeks. If you’re concerned, call your midwife or doctor immediately — for example, if you’ve seen your baby moving less than normal.

Stomach ache and abdominal pain

Symptoms Include:
Tummy ache

 

Stomach pain is a common word for cramps or a dull ache in the abdomen (tummy). It’s usually not serious and is usually short-lived.

Stomach cancer

Symptoms Include:
Heartburn | Indigestion | Wind | Bloating

 

Stomach cancer, often known as gastric cancer, is a rare type of cancer. Early symptoms are similar to those of less serious illnesses, and it is frequently detected late. Any persistent symptoms should be checked by a doctor to rule out stomach cancer.

 

Related Conditions:
Cancer

Stomach ulcer (and duodenal ulcer)

Symptoms Include:
Pain | Heartburn | Indigestion | Poor appetite

 

Stomach ulcers, sometimes called gastric ulcers, are open sores that form on the stomach lining. If you develop symptoms of a major complication of a stomach ulcer, contact a GP or GP out-of-hours service, or go to the nearest emergency department (see symptoms below).

 

Related Conditions:
Stomach ache and abdominal pain

Stopped or missed periods

Symptoms Include:
Abnormal periods

 

There are a variety of reasons why a woman may miss her period or have no period at all. The average woman has a period every 28 days, however, cycles might be somewhat shorter or longer (from 21 to 40 days). If you’ve missed more than three periods in a row, see a doctor.

 

Related Conditions:
Period problems

Stretch marks

Symptoms Include:
Stretch marks | Skin lesions | Skin discolouration

 

Stretch marks are long, thin streaks that develop on the skin’s surface. They’re usually crimson or purple at first, then fade to a silvery-white colour. They’re especially frequent during pregnancy, puberty, or when a person gains a lot of weight quickly. They’re more prevalent in women, although they can happen to men as well.

Strokes

Symptoms Include:
Dropped face | Muscle weakness | Slurred speech | Numbness

 

A stroke is a life-threatening medical illness that occurs when part of the brain’s blood supply is cut off. Strokes are a medical emergency that requires immediate attention. If you or someone you know is having a stroke, dial 999 for an ambulance right away.

 

Related Conditions:
Paralysis

Subarachnoid haemorrhage

Symptoms Include:
Headache | Stiff neck | Nausea | Light hurts

 

A subarachnoid haemorrhage is a rare type of stroke that is caused by bleeding on the surface of the brain. It’s a dangerous condition that can lead to death. It is most common in adults between the ages of 45 and 70. If you or someone you know is experiencing symptoms of a subarachnoid haemorrhage, call an ambulance right away.

Subdural haematoma

Symptoms Include:
Headache | Nausea | Sensory confusion | Mood instability

 

Blood gathers between the skull and the surface of the brain in a subdural haematoma, which is a dangerous condition. A head injury is the most common cause. If you or someone else has suffered a severe head injury, you should seek emergency medical attention right once.

 

Related Conditions:
Traumatic brain injury

Sudden confusion (delirium)

Symptoms Include:
Confused

 

A state of sudden disorientation and changes in a person’s behaviour and awareness is referred to as delirium. Take the victim to the nearest hospital or phone 999 for an ambulance if the disorientation has struck suddenly.

Sudden infant death (SID)

 

Sudden infant death (SID) – often known as “cot death” – is the untimely,  unexpected and unexplained death of a seemingly healthy newborn.

Sunburn

Symptoms Include:
Pain | Redness | Peeling skin | Blistering

 

Sunburn is caused by ultraviolet (UV) rays, which cause skin damage. While sunburn is usually minor and short-lived, it’s still crucial to attempt to avoid it. This is because it raises your chances of acquiring major health problems later in life, such as skin cancer.

 

Related Conditions:
Blisters

Swallowing problems (dysphagia)

Symptoms Include:
Difficulty swallowing

 

The medical word for trouble swallowing is dysphagia. Dysphagia affects people in different ways. Some have trouble swallowing particular foods or drinks, while others are unable to swallow at all. If you’re having trouble swallowing, you should consult a doctor.

Swine flu (H1N1)

Symptoms Include:
Temperature | Tiredness | Fatigue | Headache | Cough

 

The popular term for flu produced by a type of flu virus that caused a global flu outbreak (or pandemic) in 2009-10 was “swine flu.” It’s currently considered a common kind of seasonal flu and is covered by the annual flu vaccine.

Swollen glands

Symptoms Include:
Glands up

 

In most cases, swollen glands indicate that the body is fighting an illness. They normally improve on their own after two to three weeks. They can occasionally be an indication of a more serious condition. Check out the tips below to see if you need to see your doctor.
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