Cataracts are foggy areas on the lens, a little transparent disc inside your eye. These spots normally become larger over time, resulting in impaired, foggy vision and finally blindness. If you experience signs of cataracts, visit your optician (see the section on when to seek medical assistance).
A frequent disorder that affects the centre region of your vision is age-related macular degeneration (AMD). People in their 50s and 60s are frequently the first to be affected. It does not cause total blindness, but it can make routine tasks challenging, such as reading. If you’re concerned about your vision, see an optician.
Children with cataracts develop in the first few years of life in a small percentage of instances.
Colour vision deficiency (colour blindness)
Colour vision deficit makes it difficult for people to recognise and distinguish between different colours. Although total colour blindness (the inability to see any colour) is extremely rare, it is commonly referred to as “colour blindness.
Floaters in the eye | Flashes in the eye | Blurred vision | Blind spot in vision | Loss of peripheral vision
CMV Retinitis is a dangerous retinal infection that is common in persons with AIDS (Acquired Immunological Deficiency Syndrome) but can also affect people with other immune disorders.
The thin layer of tissue that covers the front of the eye is reddened and inflamed by conjunctivitis. It’s a rather frequent ailment. Conjunctivitis is commonly referred to as “red eye.” Conjunctivitis, including its causes, symptoms, and treatment, is discussed on this page.
Crossed Eyes (Strabismus)
When a person’s eyes are unable to align on the same spot at the same time, they appear to be misaligned or pointing in separate directions, which is known as strabismus.
Diabetic retinopathy is a consequence of diabetes that affects the back of the eye due to excessive blood sugar levels (retina). If left misdiagnosed and untreated, it might result in blindness. Everyone with diabetes over the age of 12 is invited to an annual eye examination.
Ectropion is a condition in which the lower eyelid droops and turns outwards away from the eye. It’s usually not serious, although it can be bothersome. If you think you have ectropion, you should see your doctor.
Exophthalmos (bulging eyes)
Exophthalmos, often called proptosis, is a medical term for a projecting or bulging eyeball or eyeballs. Thyroid eye illness is the most common cause. If you discover that one or both of your eyes are bulging, see your doctor or an optometrist (optician).
The eyes can be affected by a variety of cancers. Eye cancer may go undetected for years and only be discovered during a routine eye exam. Other eye conditions can cause the symptoms listed, so it’s critical to get them checked as soon as possible.
Minor irritation or injury to the front of the eye does not generally require treatment and will go away within 24 hours. If you’re worried about your injuries or it hasn’t improved in 24 hours, see your optician or doctor. A more serious injury necessitates medical attention right away.
Eyelid issues are prevalent, but they are rarely significant. If you’re concerned, see your doctor. If you feel discomfort in or around your eye, or if you have any new, unexpected vision loss, contact a GP or GP out-of-hours service right away, or go to your nearest emergency department.
Dots and lines (floaters) in the eyes, as well as flashes of light, are typical. Usually, they aren’t serious. They can afflict anyone, but they are more frequent in the elderly. Only in limited circumstances should you consult an optician about them.
Glaucoma is an eye condition that, if not diagnosed and treated early enough, can result in vision loss or reduction. It usually occurs when there is a build-up of pressure inside the eye, causing damage to the optic nerve. If you have any worries about your vision, see an optician or a doctor.
Eye infections caused by Herpes simplex are a frequent and potentially dangerous condition. They are brought on by a virus. If you suspect you have the infection, seek medical attention immediately. If it isn’t addressed, your vision may be jeopardised.
A macular hole is a small opening in the macula, which is located in the centre of the retina (rear of the eye). Consult a GP or optician as soon as possible if you experience blurred or distorted vision or a black area in the centre of your vision.
Ocular hypertension is a condition in which the pressure in the eye rises over the usual range.
When the thin sensory lining of your eye (the retina) begins to tear away from the rear of the eye, this is known as retinal detachment. It has the potential to make the affected eye blind. If you experience sudden visual issues, you should consult a doctor immediately.
Ocular migraine (retinal migraine) is a type of migraine that affects the eyes. It causes temporary blindness or vision impairments in one eye, such as flashing lights. These assaults can be alarming, but they’re usually harmless and only last a few minutes. What to do if your eyesight suddenly deteriorates can be found in the medical guidance section.
Retinoblastoma (eye cancer in children)
White pupil | Squint | Reduced eyesight | Red eye
Retinoblastoma is a rare type of eye cancer that can affect young children (usually under five years of age). If it’s picked up early, retinoblastoma can often be successfully treated (children treated for retinoblastoma diagnosed at an early stage have a survival rate of more than 95 per cent).
A squint (strabismus) is a condition in which the eyes point in opposite directions. It can affect anyone at any age, but it is more common in children under the age of five. While one eye is turned in, out, up, or down, the other is seeing ahead. If your child has a squint, seek medical help.
Uveitis is an inflammation of the uvea or uveal tract, the central layer of the eye. It might result in eye pain and vision problems. If you have persistent eye pain or an unusual change in your vision, see your doctor right once, especially if you’ve had uveitis before.